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春季和夏季杭州湾北部海域鱼类种群结构分析   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
为了解杭州湾北部海域鱼类种群组成及结构特点,利用相对重要性指数(IRI)、Cluster聚类和多元统计等方法对该海域鱼类种群结构进行分析。结果显示,春、夏季杭州湾北部海域共出现鱼类22种,隶属8目、12科、19属,鲈形目占比最高,为50%,其次为鲽形目和鲱形目,所占比例各为13.6%,生态类型以海洋性鱼类为主。调查共发现6种鱼类优势种,春季优势种为棘头梅童鱼(Collichthys lucidus)、鮸(Miichthys miiuy)和凤鲚(Coilia mystus),夏季优势种为棘头梅童鱼、白姑鱼(Pennahia argentata)、龙头鱼(Harpodon nehereus)、鮸和焦氏舌鰨(Cynoglossus joyneri)。Cluster聚类和非度量多维标度显示,杭州湾北部海域鱼类种群可分为春季组(Ⅰ组)和夏季组(Ⅱ组),春季组由5月份站位组成,夏季组由8月站位组成,组间差异系数达到84.17%。ANOSIM分析表明,春季组和夏季组种群结构差异极显著(R=0.554,P<0.01);BIOENV分析表明,春、夏季杭州湾北部鱼类种群结构与温度的相关性最高,相关系数为0.404。研究表明,杭州湾海域仍然是棘头梅童鱼、凤鲚等经济鱼类的产卵场和索饵场,鱼类种群结构的季节变化明显,棘头梅童鱼的生态洄游习性可能是造成种群结构变化的主要原因。  相似文献
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用判别函数进行鱼类种群鉴别的计算机程序实现方法   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:1  
陈卫忠 《水产学报》1995,19(1):88-94
用判别函数进行鱼类种群鉴别的计算机程序实现方法陈卫忠,李长松(东海水产研究所,上海200090)关键词判别函数,鱼类种群,鉴别,计算机程序ACOMPUTERIZEDAPPROACHTOIDENTIFICATIONOFFISHPOPULATIONBAS...  相似文献
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Temporal variation in Lake Balaton and its fish populations   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:3  
Abstract— Dramatic changes have occurred in Lake Balaton in the last 40–45 years. Variations in water quality have resulted in a decrease in fish and invertebrate diversity. Fish assemblages have changed in response to human-induced eutrophication, environmental perturbations, introduction of exotic fish species, over-fishing and species-habitat interactions. Fish biomass and productivity first increased during the early 1970s with enhanced primary production, then decreased with the reduction of exploitation since the late 1970s and induced intra- and interspecific competition. Previous stable populations began to oscillate, and the majority of stocks became fragile by the mid-1980s. Extinction of native fish and invasion of new alien species alternate. Alien species have transformed the food webs, causing long-lasting ecological changes. Reduced and non-selective exploitation has resulted in higher fish density and lower production rates. Recent studies have revealed differences in the carrying capacity of fish between the littoral zone and the open water areas.  相似文献
4.
Correlations between time series of the abundance of predator and prey fish species in heavily exploited western North Atlantic marine fisheries vary temporally but are generally positive in southern, warmer waters and negative in northern, colder ones. The correlations provide an index of trophic structure and dynamics. We construct a framework to quantify critical thresholds between states in which the predator–prey correlations are positive or negative. We do so by developing a quantitative model of the distribution of the correlations between predator (15 species) and prey (8 species) functional groups based on the annual predator depletion rates and bottom temperatures (or alternatively species richness). The model accounts for 58% of the variance of the correlations with a root mean square error of 0.3. This index of trophic structure indicates that warmer, species-rich, southern fish populations resist transformation from positive to negative predator–prey correlations at exploitation rates that can be double those in the colder, relatively species-poor, northern areas. The model can be used to set limits for exploitation rates that preserve the functional relationships between predator–prey groups in emerging fisheries, and to assess the potential for and measures required to achieve recovery of degraded fish communities.  相似文献
5.
Abstract– Microcomputer software to estimate fish population parameters, production rates, and associated variances was developed using established procedures. Pop/Pro Modular Statistical Software is a series of portable programs written in English that run on Macintosh(R) or IBM(R) (and compatible) computers. Population parameters can be estimated using either a single-census mark-recapture method or a removal method. Production and component parameters can be estimated with either the instantaneous growth rate method or the increment summation method. Output may be stratified by fish length, age or sampling interval and includes variance estimates for all parameters. The software was developed for use with fish data but may be applicable to other taxa.  相似文献
6.
Abstract In less-developed countries, fisheries enhancement using stocking is a common practice to manage reservoirs for biomass production. In many cases, there appears to be little control over whether the stocking activity is appropriate or necessary. Cuban reservoir fisheries have been usually managed to maximize fish biomass. Blue tilapia have been introduced and supplemented in reservoirs, and Chinese carp are introduced and maintained in reservoirs throughout the entire island. Supplemental stocking with introduced fish species is a usual practice to manage large and medium-sized reservoirs. Small and very small reservoirs have been managed as semi-intensively enhanced fisheries with carp and tilapia stocking. The main purposes of the present paper are to study the factors contributing to the outcome of stocking programmes in reservoirs and to test the hypotheses that supplementary stocking for self-sustained fish populations usually cannot contribute to increase fish yield. Yield and stocking data by groups of fish species were available for Cuban reservoirs. Total fish yield was only slightly related to total fish stocking density for the complete set of reservoirs. However, this result was mainly because of the relationship between total yield and cyprinid stocking for semi-intensively-used reservoirs. Tilapia yield was not significantly related to tilapia stocking for both extensively and semi-intensively-used reservoirs. However, yield and stocking for cyprinids were highly related for both reservoir subsets. Therefore, cyprinid stocking was effective in certain reservoirs, but tilapia stocking was not effective in any reservoir. Moreover, tilapia stocking was a superfluous activity for reservoirs where tilapia have an adequate natural reproduction cycle.  相似文献
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Hydropower‐related damage to fish remains a great challenge, making objective monitoring of turbine‐related fish injury a necessity. The catch of fish at turbine outlets is currently realised by net fishing, but potential catch‐related injuries are largely unknown. Catch efficiency and fish‐friendliness in relation to fish handling, exposure time, floating debris and fish biomass of four fish recovery installations were assessed using seven species. Highly species‐specific lethal and sublethal effects were observed. Exposure time had the strongest effects on catch‐related damage, being up to 150‐fold increase after 12 hr compared to 1 hr. Up to 84% mortality occurred in the most sensitive species Thymallus thymallus L. Besides exposure time, higher current speed and biomass within the net resulted in greater fish damage. To minimise catch‐related effects, keeping emptying periods <1–2 hr and considering the effects of current speed, fish and debris biomass are crucial to increase data comparability among studies.  相似文献
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