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全文介绍了氯硝柳胺的理化特性与毒性作用机理。对生物测定法、化学滴定法、分光光度法、色谱法等几种测定分析方法进行了简单阐述。讨论了氯硝柳胺对鱼类、水生甲壳类、软体动物、水生植物的毒性影响,提出了氯硝柳胺对水域环境影响的应对策略。  相似文献
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Microbiological analyses were conducted on wild eels from the L′Albufera Lake (Spain). A total of 174 individuals were collected in two surveys (i.e. year 2008 and autumn–winter 2014) among those caught by local fishermen into the lagoon. The prevalence of Shewanella putrefaciens group was 1.7% in 2008 and rose above 32% in 2014. It was due to an outbreak of shewanellosis that presented a morbidity rate of 64%. S. putrefaciens group strains were isolated as pure cultures from the sick eels that showed white ulcers surrounded by a reddish inflammation, damage of the mouth, extensive skin discoloration, exophthalmia, ascites and bad odour. The S. putrefaciens group was recovered from freshwater samples taken at the L′Albufera system, along autumn–winter 2015. Its counts significantly increased in freshwater parallel to hypoxia and temperature rising. Shewanellae strains were identified as S. putrefaciens and S. xiamenensis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These isolates recovered from sick eels or freshwater were virulent for European eel by IP challenge (LD50 106 CFU g−1 body weight). They also caused 30–38% cumulative mortality, in European eels challenged by a 2‐h bath (107 CFU mL−1). These results suggest that shewanellosis could be transmitted through water highlighting the fact that hypoxic conditions increase this bacterium levels in water.  相似文献
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为了探究大泉沟水库浮游植物群落结构的动态变化特征及综合水质状况,为库区水资源保护和渔业可持续发展提供参考依据,于2015年10月(枯水期)、2016年4月(丰水期)和7月(平水期),对库区内4个采样点进行了浮游植物群落与水质调查。结果表明,本次调查共鉴定出浮游植物8门161种,其中绿藻67种、硅藻48种、蓝藻26种、裸藻6种、隐藻6种、黄藻6种、金藻1种、甲藻1种,浮游植物群落结构组成属于绿藻-硅藻型;浮游植物主要优势种为小球藻(Chlorella vulgaris)、尖针杆藻(Synedra acus)、拟气球藻(Botrydiopsis intercedens)、四尾栅藻(Scenedesmus quadricauda)、细小平裂藻(Merismopedia minima)等;浮游植物密度为0.86×106~5.54×106个/L、平均值为2.13×106个/L;浮游植物的Shannon-Wiener指数(H)、Margalef指数(Dm)及Pielou均匀度指数(J)变化范围分别为1.97~2.56、1.83~3.01和0.68~0.77。研究显示,大泉沟水库目前处于中污染状态;相关分析表明,水温、总磷、透明度和溶解氧是大泉沟水库浮游植物群落结构变化的主要影响因子,大泉沟水库属中营养至中度富营养水库。  相似文献
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