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掌握珍稀和外来入侵物种的分布状况对于物种保护和管理十分重要。环境DNA(Environmental DNA,eDNA )分析通过收集、分离和分析环境介质环境样品中的DNA来检测物种是否存在,是一种低耗、高效、高灵敏度的无损伤性物种监测新技术。本文综述了环境DNA技术的发展、分析方案、优势及存在的问题,主要综述了该方法在外来入侵物种足迹追踪、濒危珍稀水生生物资源调查和物种多样性分析中的研究现状, 并对环境DNA分析技术在生物多样性保护研究中的应用前景进行了展望。  相似文献
2.
为开发适用于长江鱼类的环境DNA检测体系,在长江中下游干流24个采样点同步采集水样,抽滤后提取环境DNA,利用线粒体细胞色素B简并引物进行PCR扩增,扩增产物克隆测序得到419条序列,通过在GenBank核酸序列数据库进行BLAST序列比对确定物种信息,从来源于17个采样点的115条匹配成功的序列中,共检测到10种鱼类序列,代表15种鱼类。  相似文献
3.
  1. Documenting the occurrence and habitat occupancy of rare aquatic species is an ongoing challenge for conservation. Characterization of environmental DNA (eDNA) from bulk water samples has emerged as a powerful tool to infer species presence or absence without the need to observe or handle organisms.
  2. Previous eDNA studies have yet to develop species‐specific markers that target taxa with many potentially sympatric confamilials. Forty‐one freshwater pearly mussel species (Unionidae) are found in southern Ontario, Canada, with many of these listed as threatened, endangered, or of conservation concern; however, locating populations for protection can be challenging owing to morphological crypsis and species scarcity.
  3. Species‐specific eDNA markers were developed to target four unionid species. Following in silico and in vitro validation, markers were validated in the field by comparing eDNA results from water samples to detections based on quadrat sampling.
  4. Target species were detected by eDNA sampling at all sites where they had previously been located by quadrat sampling.
  5. The paired sampling design showed that species‐specific markers can be designed even within speciose families, and that eDNA detection of mussels is at least as sensitive as quadrat sampling. Furthermore, detection probabilities were not affected by sampling depth, and eDNA concentrations were positively correlated with mussel densities.
  6. These findings confirm that eDNA assays are a valuable complement to traditional methods for locating and managing imperilled unionid populations.
  相似文献
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Application of environmental DNA (eDNA) analysis has attracted the attention of researchers, advisors and managers of living marine resources and biodiversity. The apparent simplicity and cost‐effectiveness of eDNA analysis make it highly attractive as species distributions can be revealed from water samples. Further, species‐specific analyses indicate that eDNA concentrations correlate with biomass and abundance, suggesting the possibility for quantitative applications estimating abundance and biomass of specific organisms in marine ecosystems, such as for stock assessment. However, the path from detecting occurrence of an organism to quantitative estimates is long and indirect, not least as eDNA concentration depends on several physical, chemical and biological factors which influence its production, persistence and transport in marine ecosystems. Here, we provide an overview of basic principles in relation to eDNA analysis with potential for marine fisheries application. We describe fundamental processes governing eDNA generation, breakdown and transport and summarize current uncertainties about these processes. We describe five major challenges in relation to application in fisheries assessment, where there is immediate need for knowledge building in marine systems, and point to apparent weaknesses of eDNA compared to established marine fisheries monitoring methods. We provide an overview of emerging applications of interest to fisheries management and point to recent technological advances, which could improve analysis efficiency. We advise precaution against exaggerating the present scope for application of eDNA analysis in fisheries monitoring, but also argue that with informed insights into strengths and limitations, eDNA analysis can become an integrated tool in fisheries assessment and management.  相似文献
5.
1. Environmental (e)DNA assays are becoming increasingly used to detect rare or invasive aquatic species. 2. The Critically Endangered freshwater pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera is undergoing range‐wide reduction in population numbers and distribution. 3. An eDNA assay to detect the presence of M. margaritifera was developed, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene, utilizing species‐specific primers, a minor groove binding (MGB) probe and quantitative (q)PCR approaches. 4. The results from this pilot study demonstrated high sensitivity both in laboratory and field trials, and provide a valuable non‐invasive tool for detecting M. margaritifera.  相似文献
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