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1.
异齿裂腹鱼游泳能力初探   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
为了摸清雅鲁藏布江特有种异齿裂腹鱼(Schizothorax oconnori)的游泳能力,以野生鱼种为实验对象,通过丹麦Loligo System公司的环形试验水槽测试了异齿裂腹鱼的临界游泳速度、突进游泳速度和持续游泳速度。结果显示,异齿裂腹鱼的临界游泳速度随体长的增大而增加,相对临界游泳速度随体长的增大而减小,其临界游泳速度与体长的关系为Y1=-39.369+13.23X-0.371X2+0.004X3(Y1是绝对临界游泳速度,X为体长)。突进游泳速度随体长的增加而近似呈线性递增趋势,而相对突进游泳速度随体长的增大而减小。在三个固定流速(60cm/s、80 cm/s、100 cm/s)下,初步确定60 cm/s为异齿裂腹鱼的持续游泳速度,80 cm/s、100 cm/s为耐久游泳速度。研究成果以期为青藏高原地区鱼类行为学的研究提供基础资料,为鱼道等过鱼设施的设计提供参考资料。  相似文献
2.
Two studies were conducted to evaluate rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss health and welfare within replicated water recirculating aquaculture systems (WRAS) that were operated at low and near-zero water exchange, with and without ozonation, and with relatively high feed loading rates. During the first study, rainbow trout cultured within WRAS operated with low water exchange (system hydraulic retention time (HRT) = 6.7 days; feed loading rate = 4.1 kg feed/m3 daily makeup flow) exhibited increased swimming speeds as well as a greater incidence of “side swimming” behavior as compared to trout cultured in high exchange WRAS (HRT = 0.67 days; feed loading rate = 0.41 kg feed/m3 daily makeup flow). During the second study, when the WRAS were operated at near-zero water exchange, an increased percentage of rainbow trout deformities, as well as increased mortality and a variety of unusual swimming behaviors were observed within WRAS with the highest feed loading rates and least water exchange (HRT ≥ 103 days; feed loading rate ≥ 71 kg feed/m3 daily makeup flow). A wide range of water quality variables were measured. Although the causative agent could not be conclusively identified, several water quality parameters, including nitrate nitrogen and dissolved potassium, were identified as being potentially associated with the observed fish health problems.  相似文献
3.
通过自制的鱼类游泳试验装置,研究了流速对鲫(Carassius auratus)游泳行为和能量消耗的影响。结果表明,鲫的摆尾频率、摆尾幅度随游泳速度变化有明显的规律。随着游泳速度的增加,鲫的摆尾频率与幅度都相应地增加。流速小于3倍体长/s与大于3倍体长/s,摆尾频率差异性显著(P〈0.05),而摆尾幅度差异性不明显。鲫单位时间耗氧率随着流速的增加而显著增加,并且随着速度的增加,鲫用于游泳所消耗的能量占总能量消耗逐渐趋于稳定,运动净耗氧率最大为90%。水温(16±1)℃时,体长12~20cm鲫的相对极限流速为其(3.85±1.10)倍体长/s,绝对极限流速为(0.66±0.10)m/s;相同流速的温度环境中,随着体重的增加,耗氧量呈增加趋势。在相同的流速下,水温(10±1)℃时的游泳耗氧量小于(16±1)℃,而净耗氧率较大;温度(16±1)℃时,2.5倍体长/s的游泳速度有利于鲫生长代谢的能量积累。  相似文献
4.
尼罗罗非鱼(Tilapia nilotica)和大口黑鲈(Micropterus salmoide)是中国主要的淡水经济鱼类,其养殖过程中常遇到微囊藻毒素(Microcystin,MC)与孔雀石绿(Malachite green,MG)的危害。MC和MG通过食物链在人体中富集,给人类的健康造成了严重的威胁。研究测定了人工饲养的尼罗罗非鱼和大口黑鲈在含有MC和MG的水体中的行为反应。结果表明,尼罗罗非鱼和大口黑鲈在0.2和0.5μg/L MC-LR的水体中处理60min内,其游泳行为相对于对照组无显著性差异,然而,在0.5mg/L MG的水体中处理30min后,尼罗罗非鱼胸鳍摆动频显著上升,大口黑鲈胸鳍摆动频率也在25、30、45min等3个不连续的时间点出现显著的变化。说明尼罗罗非鱼和大口黑鲈对天然毒素MC具有较强的抵抗能力,而对人工毒素MG较为敏感;胸鳍摆动频率可作为尼罗罗非鱼和大口黑鲈一个较为敏感的反映环境变化的行为指标。  相似文献
5.
鱼类的游泳能力和游泳行为是成功设计过鱼设施的关键。为了探究长丝裂腹鱼( Schizothorax dolichonema Herzenstein)的游泳能力,以野生长丝裂腹鱼(110.56 g ±35.88g)为对象,测定了它们的临界游泳速度,并记录了测定过程中的游泳行为。研究表明:(1)临界游泳速度为3.04~4.93BL/s;(2)运动耗氧率与游泳速度呈幂函数关系MO 2=129.67+15.63 U 2.34( R 2=0.983, P<0.001),速度指数为2.34,表明能量利用效率相对较低;单位距离能耗(COT)与游泳速度的关系也呈幂函数关系COT=0.14 U-1+0.04U0.80(R2=0.844, P<0.001);(3)随着游泳速度的增加,尾摆幅度的变化不显著,变化范围为0.18~0.32 BL,而尾摆频率和运动步长都呈线性增加的趋势。  相似文献
6.
Abstract– The ability of chub, dace and roach to resist displacement in a laboratory channel was not only controlled by species-specific swimming ability, but also by the fishes'ability to locate areas of reduced velocity. Dace were better able to withstand high velocities than roach. Chub were better at locating slow flowing patches than either roach or dace throughout their early development. Only chub larvae shifted towards slower flowing patches as velocity increased. All juveniles shifted to slower flowing patches at high velocities.  相似文献
7.
HYEON-OK  SHIN  DAE-JAE  LEE  HYEONG-IL  SHIN 《Fisheries Science》2003,69(1):27-36
ABSTRACT:   The swimming behavior trajectory of an Israeli carp (body length 28 cm) during dynamite explosion work was obtained by the long baseline acoustic telemetry system with an ultrasonic pinger in an aquaculture cage located at Chungju Lake on 2 May 1997. The underwater noise levels measured at a distance of 400 m from the source of noise increased by 40 dB (re 1 µPa) compared to the levels before the explosion. The swimming area of the fish was reduced immediately after the explosion but more than 1 h after the explosion the fish had returned to a similar swimming area and behavior as right before the explosion. The fish usually swam less than 1.5 m from the water surface except during or right after the explosion. When there was an external stimulus, such as, an explosion the fish swam downwards. The average swimming speeds of the fish before, during and after the explosion were approximately 0.33 m/s, 0.52 m/s and 0.29 m/s, respectively, and the average swimming speed of the fish during the explosion was 1.6 times faster than usual.  相似文献
8.
流速是影响鱼类生存的重要因子。为了了解鱼类在中等流速区的游泳行为,探究其对水流的适应特征,利用鱼类游泳能力测定装置,以鲢( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ) 幼鱼[体重(9.82 ± 3.81) g,体长(8.56 ± 1.11) cm)]为对象,采用递增流速法,分析了游泳过程中的非疲劳贴网行为与姿态转换行为。结果表明,在22 °C 水温条件下,鲢幼鱼平均相对临界游泳速度(critical swimming speed, Ucrit) 为(6.00 ± 0.93)BL/s;其非疲劳贴网速度(no-fatigue impingement speed, Uimp)与临界游泳速度呈线性正相关,Ucrit = 1.03 Uimp + 1.26 (R2 = 0.86,P<0.01) ;姿态转换速度(gait transition speed, Utran)与临界游泳速度呈线性正相关,Utran = 0.59 Ucrit + 1.55 (R2 = 0.43,P<0.01) ;非疲劳贴网速度与姿态转换速度呈线性正相关,Utran = 0.51Uimp + 2.72 (R2 = 0.41,P<0.001) 。在中等流速范围内(2~4 BL/s),实验鱼摆尾频率(tail beat frequency, TBF)和单次摆尾周期前进距离(stride length, SL)均随流速增加而增大。首次出现非疲劳贴网的流速为4.62 BL/s,流速增至5.08 BL/s时出现姿态转换行为。发生姿态转换后,TBF开始下降,而SL随流速增加快速增大。研究显示,鲢幼鱼非疲劳贴网行为对游泳能力和姿态转换速度有显著影响,且非疲劳贴网行为与姿态转换行为之间也存在相互影响。研究结果可为自然环境中鱼类生态行为研究、鱼类资源保护及渔业管理提供参考。  相似文献
9.
研究短须裂腹鱼的游泳能力、运动生理及游泳行为,为过鱼设施的设计提供参考依据。实验用15尾短须裂腹鱼于2013年7月中旬采自金沙江上游玛曲河河口处,体长(23.83±2.47)cm,体重(224.95±76.83)g。游泳能力测试装置采用丹麦 Loligo Systems 公司生产的大型游泳水槽。(1)短须裂腹鱼临界游泳速度为(75.04 ± 7.6 )cm/s 、(3.17 ± 0.42) BL/s;(2)运动耗氧率与游泳速度呈幂函数关系:MO2 = 100.00 + 42.61U1.81 (R2=0.995, P<0.001);单位距离耗氧率(COT)与游泳速度的关系也呈幂函数关系:COT = 0.12U-1 + 0.04U1.02(R2=0.898,P<0.001),最适游速Uopt=1.81 BL/s,COTmin=0.14 mg /(kg?m);(3)随着游泳速度的增加,尾摆幅度的变化不显著(P>0.05),变化范围为0.17~0.26 BL、平均 (0.21 ± 0.02 )BL,而尾摆频率和运动步长都呈线性增加的趋势。  相似文献
10.
Adult Japanese anchovies (Engraulis japonicus) migrate from the East China Sea to the coastal region of Taiwan to spawn around late winter and early spring and, later, their larvae constitute important fisheries in Taiwan. However, their migration route and its mechanism remain unclear. To investigate their spawning migration, we used a coupled fish behavior–hydrodynamic modeling approach. The physical field is simulated by the Pacific Ocean adaptation of the TaIwan Multi‐scale Community Ocean Model (TIMCOM) and the fish migration by Lagrangian tracer tracking with the aid of approximation of fish swimming behavior. We investigated three fish behavioral scenarios: (i) passive tracking of the current, (ii) swimming along with the current, and (iii) swimming along with the current and then changing to swimming toward the optimal spawning temperature. The comparison with and without Changjiang discharge is used to investigate the impacts of discharge reduction due to the Three Gorges Dam. Our results suggest that spawning migration of Japanese anchovy from the East China Sea to Taiwan may be aided by the China Coastal Current and that adult anchovies cannot reach the spawning site by passive advection alone. Thus, the swimming behavior of anchovies is crucial during the spawning migration, as it provides extra velocity and the orientation to the favorable spawning grounds. In addition, the adult anchovy is unlikely to reach the coastal area of Taiwan without Changjiang discharge. Our findings indicate that a coupled fish behavior–hydrodynamic model can help understand the influences of physical environment on the migration of Japanese anchovies.  相似文献
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