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1.
Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentration is often a key limiting water quality parameter in intensive aquaculture systems. Removing ammonia through biological filtration is thus the first objective in recirculating aquaculture system design. In this study, the performance characteristics of a steady-state nitrification biofilm were explored using a series of reactors. Four nitrification kinetics parameters were estimated using the data collected from the experimental system, including minimum TAN concentration, half saturation constant, maximum TAN removal rate and maximum specific bacterial growth rate. Experimental data showed that a minimum TAN concentration was needed to support a steady-state nitrification biofilm. For the temperature of 27.2°C, the mean minimum TAN concentration was 0.07 mg/l. For a single substrate-limiting factor, the relationship between TAN removal rate (R) and TAN concentration (S) was represented by an empirical equation [R=1859(S−0.07)/(S+1.93)]. The characteristics of nitrite oxidation were also demonstrated by the experiment system. The results of this study will help to better understand the characteristics of nitrification biofilters applied in recirculating aquaculture systems.  相似文献
2.
Nitrification kinetics of biofilm as affected by water quality factors   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
Various types of fixed film biofilters have been used in recirculating aquaculture systems under different water quality and operating conditions. The effectiveness of the nitrification process can be evaluated by nitrification kinetics. Nitrification in the bacterial film of the biofilter involves physical, chemical and biological processes that are governed by a variety of parameters such as substrate and dissolved oxygen concentrations, organic matters, temperature, pH, alkalinity, salinity and turbulence level. The impacts of these parameters upon nitrification kinetics make predicting the performance of a biofilter for a given application an engineering challenge. Knowing the performance of a biofilter is critical for both designers and managers. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on nitrification kinetics as affected by the aforementioned factors based on literature and the results from the authors’ laboratories. These factors were ranked according to their significance of impact on biofilter nitrification performance. The information presented can be used as a reference for the design and operation of biofilters in recirculating aquaculture systems.  相似文献
3.
The impact of temperature on nitrification rate in fixed film biofilters   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
The impact of temperature on nitrification rate was evaluated in this study through experimental tests, mathematical modeling and sensitivity analysis. The results show that the impact of temperature on fixed film nitrification rate is less significant than that predicted by the van't Hoff–Arrhenius equation. In a fixed film biofilter, the impact of temperature on nitrification rate due to DO (dissolved oxygen) limitation is different from that due to TAN (total ammonia nitrogen) limitation. Sensitivity analysis indicated that a temperature increment at 20 °C resulted in nitrification rate increase of 1.108% per °C and 4.275% per °C under DO and TAN limited conditions, respectively. Diffusion mass transport plays an important role in fixed film nitrification processes. Consequently, the effect of temperature on nitrification rate due to bacterial growth rate change in fixed film processes is greatly reduced compared with that of suspended growth processes. When oxygen is limited, the decrease in saturation DO concentration as temperature increases results in a negative temperature impact upon the nitrification rate.  相似文献
4.
口服嗜水气单胞菌生物被膜疫苗的动物免疫试验   总被引:10,自引:2,他引:8  
将热灭活的嗜水气单胞菌(Aeromonashydrophila)生物被膜(biofilm,BF)菌苗和浮游(freecell,FC)菌苗口服免疫小鼠和剑尾鱼,通过测定抗体效价、相对保护率、小鼠的淋巴细胞转化和肠道sIgA浓度,评价免疫效果。免疫20d后,BF菌苗组50尾剑尾鱼的相对保护率为68%;FC菌苗组为42%。BF菌苗组12只小鼠的相对保护率为70%;FC菌苗组为50%;对照组为17%。BF菌苗组小鼠外周血淋巴细胞转化率是7.28、FC菌苗组为3.87、对照组为2.36。BF菌苗组小鼠肠道sIgA浓度是1.22μg/mL;FC菌苗组为0.73μg/mL;对照组为0.465μg/mL。免疫30d后,小鼠的血清凝集抗体达到最高,BF组抗体达128:1,FC组为32:1,对照组为2:1。各组间差异显著(P<0.01)。结果表明,BF菌苗较FC菌苗能更有效地刺激机体的免疫系统,尤其是肠道淋巴组织的免疫应答,对剑尾鱼和小鼠具有较好的保护力。  相似文献
5.
Design and operations of the Kaldnes moving bed biofilm reactors   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) was developed in Norway in the late 1980s and early 1990s. It is covered by several patents and has been a huge success world-wide for treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters. In addition, MBBRs have been successfully used for biological treatment of drinking water as well as for water treatment in fish farms. The MBBRs use plastic biofilm carriers of a unique design, to maximize the active biofilm surface area in the reactors. Reactors have insignificant headloss, no need for periodic backwashing and no susceptibility for clogging. This paper describes the fundamentals of the MBBR. It has a major emphasis on nitrification with the type of biofilm carrier used in fish farms, but briefly touches upon removal of organic matter and denitrification. Major factors influencing the nitrification rates in MBBRs are discussed in detail. Results from small-scale MBBR tests, as well as from commercially operated MBBRs at full scale fish farms are presented. The data are from both freshwater and marine applications.  相似文献
6.
3种载体上生物膜的硝化性能   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
通过测定水中氨氮、亚硝酸盐氮和硝酸盐氮的含量变化研究了沙子、活性炭和沸石3种载体上生物膜的生长状况,比较不同载体上异养菌、亚硝化菌及硝化菌的性能。结果表明,附着于3种载体上生物膜的熟化过程相似,熟化时间相近。载体沙子、活性炭和沸石上附着生物膜的氨化作用速率(以N计)分别为20.12g/(h·m3)、34.49g/(h·m3)和42.90g/(h·m3),亚硝化作用速率(以N计)分别为5.46g/(h·m3)、11.03g/(h·m3)和11.65g/(h·m3)。附着于载体沙子上生物膜的硝化作用速率(以N计)为43.20g/(h·m3),而附着于活性炭和沸石上的生物膜的硝化作用随时间增加而趋于减缓。显然附着于载体沸石上生物膜的氨化作用和亚硝化作用性能好于活性炭和沙子。  相似文献
7.
微生物膜对厚壳贻贝稚贝附着的影响   总被引:5,自引:4,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
为研究微生物膜在厚壳贻贝稚贝附着过程中的作用,通过海洋化学生态学和分子微生物学方法分析了微生物膜形成过程中其干重、附着细菌密度、底栖硅藻密度、叶绿素a含量等随日龄变化情况及其对厚壳贻贝稚贝附着的影响。同时,利用DGGE指纹图谱技术对不同日龄微生物膜中的细菌群落结构多样性进行了分析。结果发现,微生物膜的干重、附着细菌密度及底栖硅藻密度明显随着日龄的增加而增加,在28 d达到最高值,其干重、细菌和硅藻密度分别为0.87 mg/cm2、1.5×107/cm2、1.0×106/cm2,均与日龄显著相关。叶绿素a含量在14 d时达到最大,为2.2μg/cm2,随日龄的增加呈持续下降的趋势,相关性分析表明叶绿素a含量与日龄无直接关系。随着日龄的增加,微生物膜诱导的稚贝附着率逐渐增加,28 d时达到最高值,为76%。相关性分析显示,微生物膜的活性与干重、附着细菌密度及底栖硅藻密度显著相关,其相关性系数分别为0.717、0.711和0.754。然而,微生物膜的附着诱导活性与叶绿素a无直接相关性。细菌群落结构在厚壳贻贝稚贝附着过程中发挥了重要作用。  相似文献
8.
李志斐  王广军  谢骏  郁二蒙  余德光  夏耘  魏南 《水产学报》2014,38(12):1985-1995
为了探索池塘生态系统中生物膜形成过程固着微生物对碳源的需求特征,以生态基为生物膜载体材料,以草鱼养殖池塘为生物膜培养环境,利用Biolog技术,分析了生物膜形成过程中(第0、15、30、45和60天)微生物群落碳代谢特征。结果表明,不同采样时间生物膜固着微生物样品平均颜色变化率(average well color development,AWCD)均在培养168 h后达到稳定,并且5个采样时间点的AWCD值即对单一碳源的利用能力存在显著差异,生物膜固着微生物的碳代谢能力在15、30、45 d时最强,显著高于0和60 d(P<0.05);多样性指数也呈现出与AWCD值相同的规律,15、30和45 d生态基的4类多样性指数(Shannon指数、Pielou指数、McIntosh指数和丰富度指数)均显著高于0和60 d(P<0.05);同一采样时间生物膜固着微生物对多聚物类和碳水化合物类的利用率明显高于胺类、氨基酸类、酚类和羧酸类;随着生物膜的形成,固着微生物提高了对α-D-葡萄糖-1-磷酸、L-丝氨酸、N-乙酰-D-葡萄糖氨、吐温40、D-甘露醇等碳源的利用率;生物膜微生物代谢特征PCA分析表明,主成分1(PC1)贡献度为33.9%,主成分2(PC2)贡献度为21.1%,15、30和45 d的固着微生物群落差异较小,碳源代谢差异不显著,而与0和60 d的碳代谢差异显著。池塘生态系统中生物膜固着微生物在15~45 d代谢能力最强,且对碳源的利用是有选择性的。  相似文献
9.
导流式移动床生物膜反应器流速选择及流态分析   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
张成林  倪琦  徐皓  管崇武 《水产学报》2011,35(2):283-290
水力条件对反应器内生物膜的生长及流态形式起着决定性作用。实验分别用0.15,0.25,0.35 m/s的水流流速对内径为44 mm的管状生物膜反应器进行水力冲击,观察不同生物滤料的挂膜情况,并利用计算流体力学软件对导流式移动床生物膜反应器流态进行数值模拟。结果显示,在低流速的水力冲击下,生物滤料的挂膜效果最好,平均厚度约为70μm,且不同结构生物滤料的挂膜情况无明显差异;反应器的模拟曝气速度为0.6 m/s时,其内部的综合流动及挂膜效果最佳。因此可知,生物膜的生长情况与同种材质生物滤料的结构形状无关,但与滤料所处的水力情况有关,膜厚度随着水流速度的增大而减小;移动床生物膜反应器的曝气量大小及结构形状是影响其流态的重要因素。本研究可以为此类反应器的设计与高效运行提供基础数据。  相似文献
10.
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