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【Objective】Mechanized transplanting of rice with synchronous side deep application of fertilizer is a new and advanced technology that is still developing rapidly. In-depth studies on the effects of mechanized side deep placement of different types of nitrogen (N) fertilizer on the grain yield and N utilization efficiency of mechanized transplanted rice will be helpful for devising strategies to improve the mechanization of planting and fertilization, and to provide a theoretical basis for reducing costs and increasing fertilization efficiency in rice production. 【Method】Field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 with a randomized complete block design, with five N fertilizer application treatments: N0-plots without N fertilizer; CUB-manual surface broadcast of urea (CU); CUM-mechanized side deep placement of CU; CRUB-manual surface broadcast of controlled release urea (CRU); and CRUM-mechanized side deep placement of CRU. The characteristics of matter production, as well as N uptake and distribution, N use efficiency, yield, and yield components of rice were determined. 【Result】Each N fertilizer application treatment had similar effects on yield formation and N use efficiency in the two years. Compared with the CU treatment, the CRU treatment significantly improved dry matter accumulation, N uptake, N utilization efficiency, and grain yield. The dry matter accumulation and N uptake at maturity, N recovery efficiency (NRE), N agronomy efficiency (NAE), and grain yield were higher in the CRU treatment than in the CU treatment by 3.22%, 17.50%, 46.00%, 17.79%, and 3.72%, respectively, in 2017; and by 8.77%, 13.27%, 32.07%, 12.74%, and 3.32%, respectively, in 2018. Compared with surface broadcasting, mechanized deep placement of N fertilizer, regardless of the type of N fertilizer, significantly enhanced N use efficiency, and increased NRE and NAE by 17.91%-43.14% and 19.61%-37.39% respectively, in 2017; and by 53.80%-54.10% and 21.11%-35.11%, respectively, in 2018. Compared with surface broadcasting, mechanized deep placement of N fertilizer (CU or CRU) increased the grain yields in 2017 and 2018 by 4.46%-6.95% and 5.55%-8.11%, respectively, because of increased numbers of effective panicles and spikelets. The N uptake in stems-sheaths and leaves and the apparent amount of N translocated in stems-sheaths and leaves (TNT) were significantly higher in the CRUM treatment than in any other N application treatments from the heading stage to the maturity stage. Compared with the other N fertilizer treatments, the CRUM treatment also increased N uptake, SPAD values, and total aboveground biomass at the panicle initiation stage and full heading stage. 【Conclusion】Mechanized side deep placement of controlled release urea is an efficient fertilization method to increase the grain yield and N use efficiency of mechanized transplanted rice.  相似文献
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为探究在机插同步一次性侧深施肥作业方式下的速效氮与缓控释氮合理配比,保证水稻产量,提高肥料利用率,降低氮素流失,实现水稻的清洁化生产,采用田间小区试验,设置7个处理,分别为CK:不施肥,T1:农民习惯施肥(施N量早稻150 kg·hm-2,晚稻165 kg·hm-2),T2~T6:机插同步一次性侧深施肥(施N量早稻105 kg·hm-2,晚稻132 kg·hm-2),其中T2~T6处理的缓控释氮分别占总氮的0%、10%、20%、30%、40%。结果表明:在早稻季,各处理间产量差异不显著;晚稻季,T3~T5处理的产量间差异不显著,T6处理产量显著低于T4和T5处理;与T1处理相比,T2~T6处理的氮肥吸收利用率提高了8.08~14.10 (早稻)个和6.68~26.61(晚稻)个百分点。与T2处理相比,早、晚稻T3~T6处理氨挥发累积量分别降低了5.20%~38.20%、29.41%~35.60%,田面水总氮平均浓度下降了20.90%~38.22%、7.39%~29.14%,田面水铵态氮平均浓度降低了26.26%~46.09%、42.57%~45.61%,其中T4处理早、晚稻不减产,肥料吸收利用率达到37.93%(早稻)、61.32%(晚稻),氨挥发累积量、田面水总氮平均浓度和铵态氮平均浓度分别下降37.00%、30.48%、31.88%(早稻),35.58%、12.88%、52.58%(晚稻),综合效果最好。研究表明,在湖南双季稻生产中,采用机插同步一次性侧深施肥作业方式,缓控释氮占总氮的20%较为合适。  相似文献
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针对水稻生产中化肥施用量大、施肥方式不合理及肥料利用率低等问题,以‘九香粘’品种为材料,在5种不同施肥处理下进行随机区组小区试验,研究了侧深施用控释肥对机插中稻生长、产量及氮肥农学效率的影响。结果表明:较对照,采用侧深施用控释肥处理的水稻茎蘖数显著增多,植株器官干物质重和收获指数均较高,有效穗、穗粒数、结实率、产量和氮肥农学效率提高显著,株高和千粒重差异不明显,侧深施用控释尿素、控释尿素减氮20%和控释复合肥处理的平均增产率分别为9.98%、7.53%和8.37%,氮肥农学效率分别提高34.57%、57.62%和29.02%。处理效果以控释尿素最好,控释复合肥优于常规尿素。机插中稻侧深施用控释肥可改变机插中稻群体质量,促进产量形成,提高产量和氮肥农学效率。  相似文献
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