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湖北省水稻主产区稻田杂草种类及群落特点   总被引:10,自引:2,他引:8       下载免费PDF全文
采用七级目测法调查了湖北省3个水稻主产区25个样点稻田杂草的种类及危害程度,分析了各水稻主产区稻田杂草群落的特点.结果表明,湖北省水稻主产区稻田杂草有23科43种,据综合草害指数优势种杂草依次为稗、双穗雀稗、水花生、鸭舌草、千金子、丁香蓼、鳢肠、浮萍.其中襄樊-随州地区以稗、水花生为优势种类,江汉平原以稗、双穗雀稗为优势种类,黄冈地区以稗、鸭舌草为优势种类.江汉平原与黄冈地区稻田杂草群落相似性较大,Sфrenson相似性指数为0.774 1,二者均与襄樊-随州地区的相似性较小.总体上看,湖北省水稻主产区稻田杂草的丰富度较低,可能与长期施用除草剂有关.  相似文献
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为了解决大范围水稻种植信息提取时的混合像元问题,以便能够准确及时地获取水稻信息、指导水稻生产、保证粮食安全,该文提出了一种基于相似性分析和线性光谱混合模型复合的水稻提取业务化方法。以江西省为研究区,利用2010年4月15日至2010年10月31日的MODIS合成地表反射率数据(MODIS09A1),计算出时间序列MODIS-EVI指数,运用Savizky-Golay滤波方法对其进行平滑处理减少云等噪声的影响。根据双季稻的生长规律,结合野外调查和HJ-1ACCD2影像,确定双季稻样点,提取出标准双季稻EVI生长变化曲线,构建图像像元相似性指数,然后采用线性光谱混合像元分解模型对疑似双季稻像元进行混合像元分解,获得江西省双季稻种植面积信息的分布情况。结果显示,运用该方法提取的江西省双季稻种植分布情况与实际情况吻合,与江西省2010年统计年鉴中全省双季稻种植面积相比,提取精度为93%,精度较理想,与各地区统计面积相关性较好,R2=0.9659,可以为今后高精度水稻种植信息业务化的提取提供参考。  相似文献
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In European temperate forests, changes in the compositional similarity among local plant communities (beta diversity) have rarely been studied due to the lack of adequate baseline data. Several studies, however, report the spread of common, generalist species or a decline in specialized, rare species. Both processes may lead to increased similarity among communities, i.e., biotic homogenization.To quantify changes in beta diversity, we resampled the herb layer composition of ancient broadleaf forests at 175 semi-permanent plots distributed across the Weser-Elbe region in NW Germany 20 years after first sampling. We hypothesized that beta diversity would have decreased on average as a result of a spread of habitat generalists and a decline in habitat specialists.After two decades, the forest communities did not yet exhibit severe biotic impoverishment, although there was a broad trend towards homogenization. The actual magnitude of change depended on which beta diversity measure was applied. The downward trend was primarily the result of the spread of native species that are able to tolerate broad pH and moisture ranges. A distinction between forest specialists (closely tied to forest habitats) and generalists (also found in open habitats) did not help explain changes in beta diversity. The study shows that on the regional scale and in habitats not yet threatened by the invasion of alien species, shifts in native species can promote biotic homogenization.  相似文献
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The ecological processes responsible for the spatial assemblages of breeding bird communities in urban landscapes are more and more investigated. Indeed, understanding these processes is imperative to plan relevant management policies. We investigated breeding bird communities on 67 patches in the suburbs of Paris, France. We examined the role of patch characteristics and geographic distance between patches in determining similarity between bird assemblages. To do this, we proposed a new SØrensen similarity index based on estimators of change in community composition taking into account the detection probability of species. The patch occupancy by sedentary and migratory species was also estimated to compare their sensitivity to urbanization. Patches close to each other supported more similar bird assemblages, suggesting an effect of the spatial distribution of patches on bird dispersal and a posteriori on local community composition. Accounting for spatial location of patches, bird assemblage similarity was related to the similarity of the surrounding level of urbanization but not to the similarity of patch size or to the similarity of patch vegetation. The mean estimated occupancy rate of sedentary species was higher than that of migratory species in the whole study area. While sedentary species occupied patches surrounded by both moderate and high levels of urbanization, migratory ones primarily occupied patches surrounded by moderate levels of urbanization. Human choices in degrees, styles, and extent of urbanization, including designation and design of patches within an urban matrix, affect the composition of local bird communities.  相似文献
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Genetic variation based on isozyme and RAPD analyses was investigated in 47 and 34 accessions respectively of Vigna vexillata from different geographical origins and belonging to three botanical varieties. A total of 9 enzyme systems were studied, accounting for 14 putative loci, 8 of which were polymorphic. The analysis of genetic diversity revealed a low level of within accession variation (HS=0.013), while between accession diversity (DST) was 0.120. Coefficient of gene differentiation (GST) was 0.905, indicating that most variation was among accessions. Nei's genetic distances were calculated on the basis of allelic frequencies and a UPGMA dendrogram was constructed. Twenty arbitrary 10-mer oligonucleotides were used in RAPD analysis. Amplification profiles disclosed a higher level of polymorphism than isozymes. Based on amplification patterns, the similarity index of Jaccard was calculated and a dendrogram constructed on the basis of the similarity matrix. The final clustering based on RAPD data was similar to the one obtained using isozyme allelic frequencies. The classification in botanical varieties did not reflect the allelic constitution of the different samples. On the other hand, referring to geographical origin, most accessions from Africa and from Latin America were distributed respectively in two distinct clusters in the dendrogram. This grouping might also reflect the differences observed in the germination behaviour of V. vexillata from the two continents.  相似文献
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 Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis is commonly used by soil scientists as a sole method for identifying soil bacteria. We observed discrepancies with this method for identifying certain species of bacteria. Therefore, we used carbon substrate oxidation patterns (BIOLOG) and some simple physical and chemical tests to determine the extent of these discrepancies. Identification with FAME profiles gave false positives for Arthrobacter globiformis, Micrococcus kristinae, and M. luteus, and identification with BIOLOG patterns gave a false positive identification for A. globiformis. A visual check and Gram stain are recommended when FAME analysis identifies soil isolates as M. kristinae or M. luteus, and an additional spore formation test is recommended when FAME and BIOLOG analyses identify isolates as A. globiformis. Received: 14 January 2000  相似文献
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The concept of an ecoregion, a discrete spatial area where species composition is presumed to be relatively homogeneous compared to that between areas, has become an increasingly common conservation tool. We test the effectiveness of one ecoregion delineation (World Wildlife Fund) in capturing patterns of change in species composition of birds, mammals, and trees across the United States (excluding Hawaii) and Canada, and describe the extent to which each ecoregion boundary is concurrent with relatively large changes in species composition. Digitized range maps were used to record presence/absence in 50 × 50 km equal-area grid cells covering the study area. Jaccard’s index of similarity was calculated for all pairs of cells in the same or adjacent ecoregions. The average rate at which similarity declined with geographic distance was calculated using pairs of cells within the same ecoregion (intra-ecoregion turnover) or using pairs of cells in adjacent ecoregions (inter-ecoregion turnover). The intra-ecoregion rate varies widely among ecoregions and between taxa, with trees having a faster rate of similarity decline than mammals or birds. For all three species groups, most ecoregion boundaries have similar rates across them (inter-ecoregion) than that within each adjacent ecoregion (intra-ecoregion), with the exception of zones of transition between biomes and major geographical features. Although the ecoregion concept is useful for many other conservation applications, the lack of systematic, high turnover rates along ecoregion boundaries suggests that ecoregions should not be used as a quantitative basis for delineating geographic areas of a particular taxonomic group.  相似文献
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The characteristics of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community structure in various soil depths and growing seasons of watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) grown in commercial greenhouses in Daxing of Beijing and Weifang and Laiyang of Shandong, China were investigated using both morphological identification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The sampled soils had been used for continuous greenhouse production of watermelon for 0, 5, 10, 15, or 20 years. Glomus claroideum was the dominant species in the greenhouse soils planted for 5, 10, and 15 years in Laiyang, while Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum were dominant in the nearby open farmland soil. Sorenson’s similarity index of AMF community composition ranged from 0.67 to 0.84 in the soils planted for 5 years, and from 0.29 to 0.33 for 20 years among the three locations. Spore abundance, species richness, and the Shannon index were highest near the soil surface (0-10 cm) and decreased with soil depth, and higher in June and October than in August and December. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that available P and the number of years that soil had been used for greenhouse production were the main factors contributing to the variance of AMF community composition. It was concluded that the community structure of AMF was mainly influenced by soil available P and planting time of watermelon as well as by soil depth and seasonal variation in the commercial greenhouse.  相似文献
10.
[目的] 研究钛矿开采对周边植被物种多样性和分布格局的影响,为废弃钛矿区生物多样性保护和植被恢复提供基础数据。[方法] 以海南省文昌市废弃钛矿区为例,利用方差分析、冗余分析(RDA)研究钛矿区土壤因子与乔木、灌木和草本物种多样性差异及分布格局影响。[结果] 文昌市废弃钛矿区辐射区域仅有植物28科37属45种,其中乔木类13种,灌木11种,草本21种。钛矿开采不仅对矿区植被产生破坏,同时对辐射区域200 m范围内的植被群落结构也有明显影响;废弃钛矿区物种α多样性指数除Pielou均匀度指数外都以草本最高,显著高于乔木和灌木。随着辐射区域距离的增加,物种多样性指数逐渐递减;通过土壤环境因子与物种多样性RDA排序得出,土壤pH值、土壤含水率、有效磷、有机质和铵态氮是影响物种多样性差异的主要环境因子,它们分别解释了废弃钛矿辐射区物种多样性42.6%,12.4%,8.5%,8.2%和7.9%的差异。[结论] 钛矿周边植物物种多样性和分布格局受土壤pH值、土壤含水率等多个环境因子共同影响。矿区周边物种多样性是否受土壤重金属的影响,尚待进一步研究。  相似文献
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