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M. G. Canti   《CATENA》2003,54(3):339
Ash from plants occurs in archaeological soils all over the world. It is particularly significant in cave deposits but is also found on open air sites where dissolution has been discouraged by aridity, deep burial or calcareous surrounding sediments. This paper describes the main microscopic characteristics of ash, as well as providing details and illustrations of their origin from plant mineral and organomineral compounds. Chemical summaries are presented which reflect the major trends in phytomineralogy and highlight some additional groupings running through plant physiology. Emphasis is placed on the importance of understanding the complete range of transformations acting on ash as a result of heating and cooling, followed by weathering and dissolution. Finally, some future directions for ash research are suggested, both from within the central topic of plant ashes and extending to other types of ash.  相似文献
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对分离到的一株高抗Cu(200 mm ol/L CuSO4.5H2O)的P en icillium janth inellum菌株GXCR(中国微生物菌种保藏管理委员会普通微生物中心保藏号:CGM CC 1027)进行紫外诱变,获得了3株Cu抗性下降突变体,进一步测定结果表明,3个突变体对A l[A l2(SO4)3]和Zn(ZnSO4.7H2O)的抗性也显著下降;只有在含Cu的PDA上生长的菌体表面能够形成CuSO4.5H2O样的蓝色晶体。进一步的X-ray衍射的原子微量分析表明,这种蓝色晶体含Cu2 ,说明该菌具有Cu的生物矿化作用。菌体表面积累的Cu2 的量与菌株的抗Cu水平有正相关性,说明该菌对Cu的抗性很可能与Cu矿化作用有关。  相似文献
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In the present study, four different soil isolates were screened and evaluated for their acid neutralization capacity in liquid culture and soil column tests with either artificial soil or real acid soil. Miniaturized artificial soil column tests using Aspergillus fumigatus, Aureobasidium pullulans, and Myxococcus xanthus were also included. In the liquid-phase experiment, two isolates (designated ‘A’ and ‘B’) effectively increased the medium pH from 4 to 6.74 and 6.53, respectively, during the 6 d, and the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4+-N) concentration increased from 400 ppm to 1000 ppm (isolate A). The isolates A and B were identified as Enterococcus hirae and Clostridium sp. in 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) analysis. Artificial soil pH increased more quickly with soil isolates than in comparison to A. fumigatus or A. pullulans. In real acid soil pH increased from 4.2 to about pH 6.5 within 4 d. This suggests that biomimetic approaches could be valuable for acid soil amelioration.  相似文献
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The effect of fertilization with silicon (Si) compounds on accumulation of Si in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been studied. Wheat plants were grown under identical growing conditions, but subjected to fertilization with various Si compounds (pyrolitic fine silica particles [aerosil®], sodium silicate, silica gel), and the Si content of the above ground plants was analyzed via X‐ray microanalysis (EDX) and atomic‐absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Silicon was predominantly deposited in the epidermis cells of the leaves and their cell walls. The efficiency of the Si compounds used as fertilizers to augment the Si content of the plants increased in the order sodium silicate > silica gel > aerosil® and thus seemed to correlate with the ease of formation of orthosilicic acid from these compounds.  相似文献
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