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Objective evaluation of the global impact of fisheries on ocean ecosystems may be hampered by various biases suggesting natural variability of exploited species to be stronger and more widespread than is really the case. One of these is reporting biases: papers are usually not published which show that nothing has changed. Another such bias is that much variability is fishery-induced, i.e. due to the truncation by fishing of the age composition of exploited populations. A third source of bias, emphasized here, is that resulting from sampling a migrating population with a fixed device. This bias is illustrated by contrasting the relatively stable echo-acoustic estimates of biomass of Sardinella spp. along the north-west African coast, i.e. from Morocco and Mauritania to Senegal (data from 1992–98), with the more variable estimates of biomass in the waters of each of these countries. We conclude that published reports of 'variability' in exploited species should explicitly account for the effect of migrations and other movements, especially when such reports are to be used for contrasting fisheries-induced with environmental impacts on biomass.  相似文献
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以流溪河水库为对象研究了我国南亚热带地区水库建库以来底泥重金属长期变化特征,结合已有历史资料、水质、水文及人类活动数据,分析了该水库底泥对人类活动的响应记录。于2013年3月在流溪河水库采集泥柱,测定泥柱重金属等指标,并对数据进行多元统计分析。结果表明:根据地积累指数和NYSDEC标准评价表明流溪河水库底泥早期重金属并未受污染,而在后期流溪河水库重金属污染逐渐加剧,部分达到中度污染程度。流溪河水库底泥对其流域内环境变化及人类活动做出了较好响应记录,与历史资料、文献记载具有较高吻合。底泥记录了水库5段重金属历史时期,第I时段较小的工农业规模不足以导致重金属污染;第II时段工农业规模相比前一时段有所增加但仍没有很大体量,也不足以导致水体大规模重金属污染,但底泥中重金属由于自然和人类活动长期输入开始缓慢富集;第III时段指示了人类活动对重金属污染的影响已开始显现出来,各重金属含量开始有较大增长。第IV时段初期底泥记录了一个显著的重金属含量上升过程,指示该时段重金属自然源已有限,重金属主要来源于人类活动产生的排放。底泥重金属在该时段含量变化比较大,指示该时段是污染最严重时期;第V时段指示了重金属污染得到较好控制,但由于前期污染积累,某些重金属含量仍要高于建库早期时段。该时段进入水库中的重金属主要仍是降低程度的人为污染及大气输送。古湖沼学方法能为水库水质有效管理提供长期数据支持及生态退化的预警服务。  相似文献
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