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张 艺  戴 齐  尹力初  谷忠元 《土壤》2017,49(5):969-976
利用一个长达30 a且已进行适当变更的长期定位施肥试验,改施C4玉米秸秆以替代C3水稻秸秆,运用 δ13C自然丰度方法,研究长期施用高量有机肥、常量有机肥、化肥及当其施肥措施改变(化肥改为常量有机肥、常量有机肥改为高量有机肥、高量有机肥改为化肥、常量有机肥改为化肥)3 a后对红壤性水稻土团聚体有机碳分布及其周转的影响.结果表明:在所有施肥处理条件下红壤性水稻土团聚体分布以大团聚体(>0.25 mm)为主,占72.48%~86.33%.与施用化肥30 a相比,长期施用常量有机肥、高量有机肥有利于促进红壤性水稻土粗大团聚体(>2 mm)的形成,并提高团聚体平均重量直径(MWD).团聚体中有机碳含量随着团聚体粒径的增大而增大,大团聚体更有利于有机碳富集.长期常量有机肥、高量有机肥处理下红壤性水稻土中有机碳主要贮存在粗大团聚体(>2 mm)中,而长期化肥处理下以细大团聚体(2~0.25 mm)对土壤有机碳贡献率最高.外源新碳施入量越多,全土和各粒径团聚体新碳含量越高,且外源新碳主要分布在大团聚中.在后续施肥措施改变3年后,增加有机肥施入量(化改常、常改高)>2 mm粗大团聚体、MWD、全土及各粒径团聚体中有机碳含量将分别显著提高7.08%~73.13%、5.38%~44.22%、14.53%~38.50%、0.70%~35.86%;而减少有机肥施入量(高改化、常改化)则与之相反,分别降低28.17%~43.20%、21.17%~31.54%、17.54%~27.30%、11.49%~29.77%.因此,在我国南方红壤性稻作区的农业生产过程中应继续或加大施用有机肥,从而进一步维持或改善土壤结构,提高土壤有机碳含量.  相似文献
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银杏生长的土壤肥力变化研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:5  
通过 1 994~ 1 997年对江苏泰兴市的银杏生长土壤与自然土壤性质进行比较 .显示出银杏生长和施肥管理对土壤上部 ( 0~ 4 0cm) pH值下降 ,而中、下部 ( 40~ 1 0 0cm) pH值上升 ,全土层有机质数量增多 .土壤氮素、磷素和钾素总量及有效性均不同程度增加 ,特别是磷和钾的增加更为明显 ,反映出银杏生长(根系和落叶 )及施用农家肥 (特别是灰肥 )导致土壤肥力向良性化方向发展的趋势 .  相似文献
3.
利用一个长达30年且已进行适当变更的长期定位施肥试验,采用物理方法对团聚体有机碳进行分组,并运用δ13 C自然丰度方法,研究长期施用高量有机肥、常量有机肥、化肥及当其施肥措施改变(化改常、常改高、高改化、常改化)3年后红壤性水稻土团聚体有机碳组分含量及其分布比例的变化规律,以期为调控稻田土壤肥力及红壤性水稻土有机碳库的管理提供理论依据.结果表明:与施用化肥30年相比,长期施用有机肥显著提高了红壤性水稻土团聚体总有机碳、粗游离态颗粒有机碳(cfPOC)、细游离态颗粒有机碳(ffPOC)、闭蓄态颗粒有机碳(oPOC)及矿物结合态有机碳(MmMOC)的含量,其中以游离态颗粒有机碳变幅最大,达67.5%~150.0%,对施肥最敏感,能较好地反映长期施肥下土壤有机碳库的变化.在后续施肥过程中,增加有机肥施入量(化改常、常改高)团聚体总有机碳、粗游离态颗粒有机碳(cfPOC)、细游离态颗粒有机碳(ffPOC)、闭蓄态颗粒有机碳(oPOC)及矿物结合态有机碳(MmMOC)含量将分别显著提高5.2%~15.5%,2.8%~40.2%,18.9%~43.9%,2.8%~17.6%,5.1%~8.2%;而减少有机肥施入量(高改化、常改化)则与之相反,分别降低15.8%~20.9%,12.6%~26.9%,24.6%~48.4%,19.9%~23.9%,4.9%~21.9%.在所有施肥处理条件下闭蓄态颗粒有机碳(oPOC)分布比例最低,为11.3%~13.4%;矿物结合态有机碳(MmMOC)分布比例最高,为50.4%~59.0%,是红壤性水稻土固存有机碳的主要形式.外源新碳施入量越多,大团聚体及其各有机碳组分的新碳含量越高,且45.6%~50.1%进入矿物结合态有机碳组分,34.1%~42.3%进入游离态颗粒有机碳组分,11.8%~18.0%进入闭蓄态颗粒有机碳组分.因此,在我国南方红壤性稻作区的农业生产过程中应继续或加大施用有机肥,从而进一步维持或提升土壤不同组分有机碳库.  相似文献
4.
With the aim of determining the impact on soil caused by deforestation and replacement by pasture in the rainforests of the Venezuelan Andes, three representative plots were selected: one under natural forest (F), another deforested (D), and the third one under pasture (P). The chemical analyses of the soils were complemented with a micromorphological study. The analysis of thin sections revealed major differences in the microstructure and porosity, as well as in the characteristics of the fine fraction and organic constituents, together with other pedological features, corroborating the different dynamics and types of soil in the natural or altered forest landscape. The change in soil use leads to the reorganization of the solid fraction, evidenced in the intensity of the processes of transference and accumulation of materials in the different soil horizons. The results confirm that the change in land use is determinant in the current fertility and evolution of the soils. The main consequences of the land-use change are: a change in the soil organic-matter cycle with a greater degree of maturation in the disturbed soils (C/N in Ah horizon: 28.5 (F); 19.8 (D); 18.4 (P)), in which moder humus from undisturbed forest soils transforms into an acidic mull in the anthropogenic disturbed ones; illuviation of organic matter and minerals appears to have occurred after deforestation (colour (dry–wet) in Ah–Bt1–Bt2 horizons: 3/2–2/2, 4/4–3/4, 4.5/4–3.5/4 (F); 5/4–4.5/4, 5/6–4/6, 5/6–4.5/6 (D); 4.5/4–4/3.5, 5/6–4/4, 5/6–4/4 (P)); the amount of kaolinite and the degree of browning increased gradually with deforestation; other changes observed (bioturbation, microstructure, porosity and distribution of organic constituents) may also be related to the different activity of the soil fauna in disturbed (oribatids) and undisturbed soils (worms). Thus the porosity changes in the following form: the percentage of packing voids in the surface samples decreases from a 80% in the forest soil to a 70% and 65% in deforested and pasture soils, respectively. Moreover in depth a dominance of channels in forest-soil porosity changes into an abundance of planar voids in the other two types of soils studied.  相似文献
5.
Cattle feedyards can impact local environments through emission of ammonia and dust deposited on nearby land. Impacts range from beneficial fertilization of cropland to detrimental effects on sensitive ecosystems. Shortgrass prairie downwind from an adjacent feedyard on the southern High Plains of Texas, USA changed from perennial grasses to annual weeds. It was hypothesized that N enrichment from the feedyard initiated the cascade of negative ecological change. Objectives were to determine the distribution of soil nitrogen and estimate N loading to the pasture. Soil samples were collected from 119 locations across the pasture and soil total N (TN), nitrate-N and ammonium-N (AN) determined in the top 30 cm. Soil TN concentration decreased with distance downwind from the feedyard from 1.6 ± 0.2 g kg−1 at 75 m to 1.2 ± 0.05 g kg−1 at 582 m. Nitrate-N concentration decreased within 200 m of the feedyard and changed little at greater distances. Ammonium-N concentration decreased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing distance from the feedyard from 7.9 ± 1.7 mg kg−1 within 75 m from the feedyard to 5.8 ± 1.5 mg kg−1 at more than 550 m from the feedyard; however, distance only explained 12% of the variability in AN concentration. Maximum nitrogen loading, from 75 to 106 m from the feedyard, was 49 kg ha−1 year−1 over 34 years and decreased with distance from the feedyard. An estimate of net dry deposition of ammonia indicated that it contributed negligibly to N loading to the pasture. Nitrogen enrichment that potentially shifted vegetation from perennial grasses to annual weeds affected soil N up to 500 m from the feedyard; however, measured organic and inorganic N beyond that returned to typical and expected levels for undisturbed shortgrass prairie.
Richard W. ToddEmail:
  相似文献
6.
A study to evaluate the changes in the fertility of Fluvisols under continuous cultivation of sugarcane was conducted in the vicinity of the Santa Rosalía sugar refinery. About 4000 ha of Fluvisols have been under sugarcane cultivation for more than 30 years. Three representative plots under monoculture for 5, 10, 20 and 30 years, were selected under on-farm conditions. Several samples were obtained from crop row and inter-row zones, at 0–30 cm soil depth, and composited into four samples for each plot. Soil samples were analyzed for pH, organic matter, total organic C, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, calcium and magnesium, cation exchange capacity, texture and bulk density. There were significant changes in the soil chemical properties due to 30 years of monoculture, except for OM, exchangeable K, Ca, Mg and CEC. Total soil organic C, total N and P declined by 17, 21 and 37%, respectively, by 30 years of monoculture of sugarcane. These losses mainly occurred during the first 20 years of cultivation. However, the adverse effect of decline in soil fertility was not reflected in the sugarcane yields. The 67% increase in yields observed between 5 and 30 years of monoculture may be attributed to the adoption of recommended cultural practices and to farmer's experience. Soil physical properties were not affected by the intensive sugarcane cultivation. A complete adoption of recommended practices by SR among farmers and a revision of the N and P fertilization rate are necessary to maintain the fertility of sugarcane soils.  相似文献
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