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1.
刘宁  赵国  刘刚 《农业工程学报》2021,37(18):232-243
溶出伏安法具有分析速度快、成本低、灵敏度高等优点被广泛应用于检测土壤重金属含量,但在检测土壤重金属时,溶出伏安检测精度会受到多方面因素的影响。该文在介绍溶出伏安法工作原理的基础上,从伏安参数、试验条件和土壤物质成分三方面阐述溶出伏安法检测土壤Pb2+和Cd2+为的影响因素,解析各因素的影响机理,归纳影响削弱方法的研究进展。研究结论为:方波脉冲阳极溶出伏安法最常用于检测土壤Pb2+和Cd2+,伏安参数包括脉冲幅值、电压增量和脉冲频率,试验条件包括沉积时间、沉积电压和支持电解质种类及其pH值,土壤成分主要干扰因素包括非目标重金属和有机质。针对伏安参数和试验条件的影响可以设计优化试验有效削弱。针对非目标重金属和有机质的干扰影响,目前研究还没有提出有效的削弱方法。最后,展望了溶出伏安法检测土壤重金属的未来发展方向。  相似文献   
2.
土壤团聚体有机碳研究进展   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
土壤有机碳是衡量土壤肥力的重要指标,对于促进土壤养分循环、增加养分有效性有重要作用。土壤团聚体是土壤的重要组成部分,是组成土壤结构的最小单元,受到自然因素和人为因素的影响,其形成转化过程与土壤固碳过程息息相关,因而研究团聚体和有机碳的关系及团聚体有机碳影响因素对于土壤结构的改善和土壤质量的提升具有重要意义。本文通过对文献的总结,明晰了土壤团聚体和有机碳的关系,阐述了土壤类型、施肥方式、土地利用和矿区复垦对土壤团聚体有机碳的影响,并从生物质炭的长期定位研究和复垦矿区的土壤修复两方面对土壤团聚体有机碳的研究进行展望,研究结果可为合理的农业生产提供科学依据。  相似文献   
3.
末端开路同轴探头法测量土壤复介电值用于表征土壤含水率具有准确、快捷的优点。针对目前土壤介电同轴探头集总测量模型没有充分考虑探头的参数以及土壤体积对测量结果影响等问题,基于电磁场理论,对末端开路同轴探头建立了准静态数学模型,适用于土壤的复介电常数准确测量。通过全波软件仿真和模型计算结果对比,以无水乙醇介电实测值和理论值对比,验证模型的准确性。采用本文介电测量模型对不同含水率的黄绵土进行测量计算,复介电常数实部与实测土壤含水率二阶多项式拟合决定系数大于0.965,表明本文所提土壤介电测量方法适用于土壤复介电常数和含水率的测量。  相似文献   
4.
河套平原典型县域耕地土壤养分空间变异特征研究   总被引:4,自引:3,他引:1  
为研究河套平原地区土壤养分状况,探究县域尺度土壤养分的空间变异性与分布特征,以杭锦后旗县域耕地为对象,采用实地调查和地统计学相结合的方法,研究该区耕层土壤有机质、全氮、有效磷、速效钾养分含量状况,分析土壤养分空间分布及其变异特征。结果表明,研究区耕层土壤有机质、全氮、速效磷和速效钾平均含量依次为13.90 g/kg、0.93 g/kg、16.25 mg/kg和170.79 mg/kg,土壤有机质和全氮处于缺乏状态,速效磷含量中等,而速效钾的含量较为丰富。从空间变异及相关性看,各土壤养分的变异程度都为中等变异,有机质和速效钾为中等相关性,全氮和有效磷均为弱相关性。从空间分布格局看,土壤有机质与全氮分布规律相近,呈现西北部高、东南部和东北部低的特点;土壤速效钾整体分布较为均衡;速效磷空间差异明显,呈东高西低格局。针对该地区土壤养分含量及分布规律,在进行养分管理过程中,应以控氮、稳磷、稳钾、全区规划与重点应对相结合的原则,坚持以有机肥为主、有机与无机相结合的施肥策略。对县域尺度耕地土壤养分状况的调查研究和统计分析,明晰了区域土壤养分空间分布特征及其与土地利用方式之间的关系,为河套平原耕地土壤养分管理、地力培育以及合理施肥运筹等提供科学依据。  相似文献   
5.
不同施肥处理对马铃薯农田土壤理化性状及产量的影响   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
为了探究不同施肥处理对马铃薯农田土壤理化性状及产量的影响,试验地采用马铃薯连作模式,设置3个施肥处理,即:单施化肥(T)、有机肥配施化肥(YTF 1/2)、全量有机肥(YTF)。结果表明:在不同施肥处理下马铃薯农田土壤的理化性质和马铃薯产量发生了变化,其中变化最为明显的土壤指标有土壤容重、孔隙度、饱和导水率、有效磷。YTF处理较T处理可分别显著(P<0.05)降低土壤容重16.8%,增加土壤孔隙度12.7%,提升饱和导水率25.3%。YTF处理可显著提升土壤有效磷含量43.0%,但各处理间土壤pH、有机碳、全氮、全磷、碱解氮、速效钾之间差异并未达到显著水平。同时,较之T处理,YTF处理亦可显著提升土壤团聚体含量。YTF和YTF 1/2处理可分别较T处理提升马铃薯产量24.6%和12.8%。因此,施用有机肥不仅可以改善土壤结构,改良土壤物理性状,亦能促产增收。  相似文献   
6.
Soil carbon (C) saturation implies an upper limit to a soil's capacity to store C depending on the contents of silt + clay and poorly crystalline Fe and Al oxides. We hypothesized that the poorly crystalline Fe and Al oxides in silt + clay fraction increased the C saturation and thus reduced the capacity of the soil to sorb additional C input. To test the hypothesis, we studied the sorption of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on silt + clay fractions (<53 µm) of highly weathered oxic soils, collected from three different land uses (i.e., improved pasture, cropping and forest). Soils with high carbon saturation desorbed 38% more C than soils with low C saturation upon addition of DOC, whereas adsorption of DOC was only observed at higher concentration (>15 g kg?1). While high Al oxide concentration significantly increased both the saturation and desorption of DOC, the high Fe oxide concentration significantly increased the desorption of DOC, supporting the proposition that both oxides have influence on the DOC sorption in soil. Our findings provide a new insight into the chemical control of stabilization and destabilization of DOC in soil.  相似文献   
7.
杨爽 《中国农学通报》2021,37(22):84-89
本研究利用2017年墨脱县农田测土配方项目土壤调查数据,运用地统计学方法研究了墨脱县耕层土壤有机质(SOM)、碱解氮(AN)、速效磷(AP)和速效钾(AK)养分含量现状及分布特征,以期为墨脱县耕地土壤科学合理施肥提供理论依据。结果表明:当前墨脱全县土壤SOM、AN、AP和AK平均含量为89.18 g/kg、201.25 mg/kg、11.23 mg/kg、313.17 mg/kg;90%的土壤样本有机质含量处于丰富水平;83%的土壤样本碱解氮含量处于丰富、稍丰等级;84%的土壤样本速效磷含量在中等及中等以下肥力水平;46%的土壤样本速效钾含量处于中等及以下水平。从空间分布来看,土壤SOM、AK总体上呈现西高东低,AN含量由北至南呈升高趋势,土壤AP整体上没有明显的空间变化规律。墨脱县耕地土壤养分整体表现为有机质含量丰富,氮素养分较丰富,磷素养分缺乏现象普遍,钾素养分部分区域缺乏。为提升墨脱县耕地土壤肥力水平,各乡镇应该因地制宜进行土壤培肥。  相似文献   
8.
Mingzhu HE 《干旱区科学》2020,12(4):701-715
In arid desert regions of northwestern China, reclamation and subsequent irrigated cultivation have become effective ways to prevent desertification, expand arable croplands, and develop sustainable agricultural production. Improvement in soil texture and fertility is crucial to high soil quality and stable crop yield. However, knowledge on the long-term effects of the conversion of desert lands into arable croplands is very limited. To address this problem, we conducted this study in an arid desert region of northwestern China to understand the changes in soil physical-chemical properties after 0, 2, 5, 10, 17, and 24 years of cultivation. Our results showed that silt and clay contents at the 17-year-old sites increased 17.5 and 152.3 folds, respectively, compared with that at the 0-year-old sites. The soil aggregate size fraction and its stability exhibited an exponential growth trend with increasing cultivation ages, but no significant change was found for the proportion of soil macroaggregates (>5.00 mm) during the 17 years of cultivation. The soil organic carbon (SOC) content at the 24-year-old sites was 6.86 g/kg and increased 8.8 folds compared with that at the 0-year-old sites. The total (or available) nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents showed significant increasing trends and reached higher values after 17 (or 24) years of cultivation. Changes in soil physical-chemical properties successively experienced slow, rapid, and stable development stages, but some key properties (such as soil aggregate stability and SOC) were still too low to meet the sustainable agricultural production. The results of this long-term study indicated that reasonable agricultural management, such as expanding no-tillage land area, returning straw to the fields, applying organic fertilizer, reducing chemical fertilizer application, and carrying out soil testing for formula fertilization, is urgently needed in arid desert regions.  相似文献   
9.
Carbon storage in the soils on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau plays a very important role in the global carbon budget. In the 1990s, a policy of contracting collective grasslands to smaller units was implemented, resulting in a change from the traditional collective grassland management to two new management patterns: a multi‐household management pattern (MMP: grassland shared by several households without enclosures) and a single‐household management pattern (SMP: grassland enclosed and used by only one household). In 2016, 50 MMP and 54 SMP winter pastures on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau were sampled to assess the differences in soil organic carbon (SOC) between the two management patterns. Results showed that average SOC was significantly greater under MMP than under SMP, with an estimated 0.41 Mg C/ha/yr lost due to SMP following the new grassland contract. Based on the government's grassland policy, four grassland utilization scenarios were developed for both summer and winter pastures. We found that if the grassland were managed under SMP, likely C losses ranged between 0.31 × 107 and 6.15 × 107 Mg C/yr across the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau relative to MMP, which more closely resembles pre‐1990s grassland management. Previous estimates of C losses have only considered land use change (with cover change) and ignored the impacts driven by land management pattern changes (without cover change). The new data suggest that C losses from the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau are greater than previously estimated, and therefore that the grassland contract policy should be reviewed and SMP households should be encouraged to reunite into the MMP. These findings have potential implications for land management strategies not only on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau but also other grazing regions globally where such practices may exist.  相似文献   
10.
In the oldest commercial wine district of Australia, the Hunter Valley, there is the threat of soil salinization because marine sediments underlie the area. To understand the risk requires information about the spatial distribution of soil properties. Electromagnetic (EM) induction instruments have been used to identify and map the spatial variation of average soil salinity to a certain depth. However, soils vary with depth dependent on soil forming factors. We collected data from a single‐frequency and multiple‐coil DUALEM‐421 along a toposequence. We inverted this data using EM4Soil software and evaluated the resultant 2‐dimensional model of true electrical conductivity (σ – mS/m) with depth against electrical conductivity of saturated soil pastes (ECp – dS/m). Using a fitted linear regression (LR) model calibration approach and by varying the forward model (cumulative function‐CF and full solution‐FS), inversion algorithm (S1 and S2), damping factor (λ) and number of arrays, we determined a suitable electromagnetic conductivity image (EMCI), which was optimal (R2 = 0.82) when using the full solution, S2, λ = 3.6 and all six coil arrays. We conducted an uncertainty analysis of the LR model used to estimate the electrical conductivity of the saturated soil‐paste extract (ECe – dS/m). Our interpretation based on estimates of ECe suggests the approach can identify differences in salinity, how these vary with parent material and how topography influences salt distribution. The results provide information leading to insights into how soil forming factors and agricultural practices influence salinity down a toposequence and how this can guide soil management practices.  相似文献   
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