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1.
Abstract. The Pan‐European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (pesera ) model was evaluated using existing soil erosion data collected under various types of climate, vegetation, landscape and soil conditions. The data used represent a variety of typical Mediterranean land uses such as winter wheat, vines, olives and bare, stony land prevailing in hilly areas. Using this data, the model was calibrated for sediment transport by overland flow and results compared to measured soil erosion values from runoff plots and a watershed on a monthly basis. The performance of the model was assessed statistically, showing that it can be satisfactorily used for predicting soil erosion rates under the conditions included in the study. The overall model estimate including all the available experimental data was 0.69 t ha?1 yr?1 with a maximum error of 1.49 t ha?1 yr?1. After validation, the model was applied to a small watershed (60 ha) of great ecological importance for the sea turtle Caretta caretta. For this purpose, soil and vegetation maps were compiled from all the necessary data for applying the model. The model was run for three years using daily data from an existing nearby meteorological station. The predicted and measured soil erosion rates for a 7‐month period were 0.31 t and 0.18 t, respectively. Application of the model to each mapping unit showed the over‐riding importance of land use for sediment generation under the given climatic conditions. Bare land, occupying 5.5% of the watershed area, generated up to 69% of the total sediments estimated for the watershed. It is concluded that the pesera model can be used as a regional diagnostic tool under a range of soil, topographic and climatic conditions for identifying the best land use type and vegetation cover to protect hilly areas from soil erosion. The calculated overall root mean square error for the model is 0.06 t ha?1 yr?1, compared to a soil erosion rate of 0.04 t ha?1 yr?1, which can be tolerated for protecting the area for the sea turtle.  相似文献   
2.
依据航片判读、森林资源调查资料和水文数据,利用流域自身对比法,得出森林变化对河川径流泥沙的定量关系。文中还阐明本方法的技术关键——消除降雨量不同对水沙的影响.该方法具有适合我国国情、费小效宏、精度较高、简捷易行等优点,值得推广提倡。  相似文献   
3.
The spawning success of lithophilic salmonids is strongly influenced by the fine sediment content (“fines”) of spawning substrates, yet knowledge on the impacts of fines on the spawning of non‐salmonid lithophiles remains limited, despite their ecological and socio‐economic importance in European rivers. Consequently, the aim here was to use an ex‐situ experiment to investigate the impact of sand content on egg survival and timing of larval emergence of the surface‐spawning cyprinid European barbel Barbus barbus. Thirty incubator boxes within a recirculating system were filled with one of five experimental sediment mixtures (0%–40% sand by mass) that each contained 300 fertilised eggs at a depth of 50 mm. Emerged, free‐swimming larvae were captured and counted daily to assess grain‐size effects on larval survival and emergence. Specifically, total proportion of emerged larvae, cumulative daily proportion of emerged larvae and time required to reach 50% emergence were measured during the study. Whilst the proportion of sand in the sediments did not have a significant impact on egg‐to‐emergence survival (mean survival per treatment 75%–79%), it significantly affected the timing of larval emergence to the water column; early emergence was detected in treatments with elevated sand content (on average, 50% emergence after 12–13 days versus 19 days in the control). Similar to findings from salmonid studies, these results suggest high sand content in spawning gravels can influence timing of larval emergence and potentially cyprinid lithophilic fish survival.  相似文献   
4.
In this paper, the Annualized Agricultural Non‐Point Source (AnnAGNPS) model has been used to estimate runoff, peak discharge and sediment load at the event scale in a Mediterranean watershed. The study area is the Carapelle torrent, Southern Italy (area = 506 km2), where continuous rainfall, streamflow and sediment load data are available. Nineteen flood events have been registered in the period 2007–2009 and were used for the application of the model. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the model at the event scale, in a medium‐size watershed, given the specific conditions of the semi‐arid environments. A sensitivity analysis has been carried out to assign the correct parameterization: the mean normalized output variation of the most meaningful input parameters pointed out the influence of the curve number on runoff, peak discharge and sediment load predictions (values greater than 1); the MN Manning's roughness coefficient and K, C and P factors of the universal soil loss equation showed a moderate influence on sediment load simulations (values between 0·5 and 1). The selection of the Soil Conservation Service synthetic storm types has been based on the observed storm events analysis to improve the peak discharge simulations. The model prediction has proved to be good for runoff (R2 = 0·74, NSE = 0·75, W = 0·92) and peak discharge (R2 = 0·85, NSE = 0·70, W = 0·94), and satisfactory for sediment yield (R2 = 0·70, NSE = 0·63, W = 0·91). The relative error is lower for high events; this result is quite interesting in semi‐arid environments, where most of the annual sediment yield is concentrated in a few, severe events. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
5.
Jinshajiang River, which has a drainage area of 485,100 Km 2, average flux of 142.9 billion m 3, and soil conveyance of 247 million t/a, is the largest branch of Changjiang river. It is also the largest soil resource of the Three Gorges reservoir and upper reach of Changjiang River. To research the development and trend of Jinshajiang sediment not only has a relation to Jinshajiang water resource strategy, but also has important meaning to control the silt in Three Gorges reservoir and the Changjiang water resource development. The paper statistically analyses the flux and sediment conveyance of the Pingshan station, which is the primary hydrological station in the Jinshajiang River Drainage Area. Through several non-parameter statistical methods such as Spearman order correlativity check, Kendell order correlativity check, and linear regression check, the paper concludes that the sediment evolvement trend of Pingshan station is not distinct.  相似文献   
6.
7.
硝酸钙在底泥修复中的作用机理及   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
受污染底泥的修复已经成为水环境修复中的重要组成部分,在底泥中注入硝酸钙则是近十多年来发展起来的一种污染底泥原位处理技术。全面分析了硝酸钙在底泥修复中去除有机物、抑制磷的释放以及消除水体黑臭现象的机理,并介绍了这一技术在国内外的研究和应用状况。研究成果表明:在底泥中注入硝酸钙的技术已从实验室和中试研究阶段发展到了实际的工程动作阶段,并且在有机物PAHS的降解和硫化物的去除方面已经得到了很好的效果。  相似文献   
8.
The largescale Dujiangyan Irrigation System has had a long history. Built some 2200 years ago, it still operates smoothly today. Two major causes for the obvious profits it has provided are:Firstly, Yuzui (a bifurcation pier), Feishayan (a sand outlet and spillway) and Baopingkou (a diversion intake for the general trunk canal), the three main head-works were built in accordance with the terrain and topography of the river and appropriately arranged, thus successfully solving the problem of sand discharge and flood control. Consequently the task of gravity diversion could be fulfilled over a long period.Secondly, there is a special management and maintenance system, which is made up of a technical and an administrative department. The former is in charge of the maintenance and drawing-up of flood control and water consuming plans. The latter is responsible to mobilize and organize farmers which benefit from the system to carry out related plans and tasks. The most apparent characteristics of management is that many farmers are organized to participate in the management of this irrigation system. At present, techniques like remote control and telemetery have been adopted. Also experiments on management automation and optimization of water allocation are being conducted.  相似文献   
9.
This paper reports on laboratory research on the sediment passagecapability through long-throated flumes and broad-crested weirs withwhich the Froude number in the approach channel does not exceed 0.6over a distance of about 20 times the water depth upstream of thestructure. Design rules are given for any combination of flume or weirin combination with any channel.  相似文献   
10.
引水渠是一种常见的河道分流形式,由于主河道与引水渠之间往往有一定的夹角,水流从分汊前主河道流入引水渠时必然在一定的范围内发生一定程度的弯曲,其结果是有利于较多较粗的泥沙分入引水渠,导致渠道口门产生较为严重的淤积现象,而渠道口门淤积问题是决定引水工程是否成败的主要因素之一,通过一维非恒定流水沙沙数学模型,研究了不同水沙条件下引江济汉工程引水渠道口门泥沙淤积厚度变化规律,并分析了糙率对口门淤积厚度的影响情况,模型的计算结果与水流运动规律相吻合,可以为渠道引水防沙设计提供技术支持。  相似文献   
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