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Antimicrobial peptides are a class of proteins with antibacterial functions. In this study, the anti-lipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 gene (ALFPm3), encoding an antimicrobial peptide from Penaeus monodon with a super activity was expressed in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which would develop a microalga strain that can be used for the antimicrobial peptide production. To construct the expression cluster, namely pH2A-Pm3, the codon optimized ALFPm3 gene was fused with the ble reporter by 2A peptide and inserted into pH124 vector. The glass-bead method was performed to transform pH2A-Pm3 into C. reinhardtii CC-849. In addition to 8 μg/mL zeocin resistance selection, the C. reinhardtii transformants were further confirmed by genomic PCR and RT-PCR. Western blot analysis showed that the C. reinhardtii-derived ALFPm3 (cALFPm3) was successfully expressed in C. reinhardtii transformants and accounted for 0.35% of the total soluble protein (TSP). Furthermore, the results of antibacterial assay revealed that the cALFPm3 could significantly inhibit the growth of a variety of bacteria, including both Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-positive bacteria at a concentration of 0.77 μM. Especially, the inhibition could last longer than 24 h, which performed better than ampicillin. Hence, this study successfully developed a transgenic C. reinhardtii strain, which can produce the active ALFPm3 driven from P. monodon, providing a potential strategy to use C. reinhardtii as the cell factory to produce antimicrobial peptides.  相似文献   
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【目的】干旱是严重影响玉米生长发育进程的一个重要因素。挖掘玉米抗旱相关基因,通过转基因功能验证和转录组分析,解析关键基因在响应干旱胁迫过程中的分子调控机制,为抗旱分子育种和遗传改良提供理论依据。【方法】以玉米自交系B104(WT)为背景材料,利用农杆菌介导方法构建过表达ZmIBH1-1转基因株系(ZmIBH1-1-OE);通过对转基因植株进行草铵膦抗性筛选、标记基因和目的基因PCR检测,以及运用实时荧光定量PCR检测目的基因的表达情况,鉴定阳性植株和株系;以WT和ZmIBH1-1-OE转基因株系为材料,通过干旱处理(20% PEG6000),进行表型鉴定和耐旱生理生化指标测定,验证ZmIBH1-1的抗旱功能;通过对干旱胁迫下玉米4叶期转录组的比较分析,鉴定出差异表达的基因(differentially expressed genes,DEGs);结合DAP-seq(DNA affinity purification sequencing)分析,初步确定ZmIBH1-1蛋白直接调控与抗旱相关的下游靶基因,利用基因组可视化软件IGV(integrative genomics viewer)分析ZmIBH1-1蛋白结合候选靶基因的位置,然后通过Dual-Luciferase试验验证ZmIBH1-1蛋白与靶基因的调控关系。【结果】通过玉米遗传转化获得12个转化事件;T3代中,能同时检测到标记基因Bar和目的基因ZmIBH1-1的植株有458个,实时荧光定量PCR检测结果表明,ZmIBH1-1-OE中ZmIBH1-1的表达量显著高于WT,株系3和株系8表达量最高,将其自交获得T4代转基因株系用于后续试验。在干旱胁迫条件下,ZmIBH1-1-OE株系存活率、叶片相对含水量、叶绿素含量、可溶性蛋白含量及其生理生化指标(超氧化物歧化酶、过氧化物酶、过氧化氢酶活性)均显著高于WT,说明玉米中过量表达ZmIBH1-1赋予玉米更高的耐旱性。转录组分析结果表明,WT与ZmIBH1-1-OE株系在干旱胁迫下有1 214个差异表达基因;Gene Ontology(GO)功能富集分析结果表明,差异表达基因主要涉及生物过程、细胞组分和分子功能,如在生物过程中主要涉及到光合作用、应激响应、脱水响应等;KEGG富集分析表明,差异表达基因主要参与植物激素信号传导、新陈代谢等过程。结合转录组显著差异表达基因和DAP-Seq分析所得到ZmIBH1-1蛋白的靶基因,初步确定ZmIBH1-1蛋白直接调控与抗旱相关的11个候选靶基因,包括2个钙信号相关基因、3个半胱氨酸代谢相关基因、1个bHLH转录因子、1个应激响应蛋白、1个谷胱甘肽转移酶、1个氧化还原过程蛋白和2个乙烯响应因子;基因组可视化结果显示ZmIBH1-1蛋白可以结合靶基因启动子区;随后通过Dual-Luciferase试验进一步表明,ZmIBH1-1蛋白可以直接作用于11个候选靶基因,其中,ZmIBH1-1蛋白可以促进ZmCa-MZmSYCOZmbHLH54ZmGlu-r1ZmCLPB3ZmP450-99A2的表达,抑制ZmAGD12ZmCYSZmCYSBZmERF-107ZmEIN3的表达。此外,在干旱胁迫下NAC、WRKY、MYB等转录因子在ZmIBH1-1-OE和WT株系中也存在差异表达。【结论】ZmIBH1-1的过表达可以增强玉米苗期的耐旱性;ZmIBH1-1蛋白通过直接调控乙烯信号通路中的ZmERF-107ZmEIN3的表达提高玉米的耐旱性;ZmIBH1-1蛋白通过直接调控钙信号相关基因ZmCa-MZmAGD12增强玉米的耐旱性;ZmIBH1-1蛋白可能通过间接调控NAC、WRKY、MYB等转录因子响应干旱胁迫。  相似文献   
4.
Although the Mekong River is one of the world's 35 biodiversity hot spots, the large‐scale patterns of fish diversity and assemblage structure remain poorly addressed. This study aimed to investigate the fish distribution patterns in the Lower Mekong River (LMR) and to identify their environmental determinants. Daily fish catch data (i.e. from December 2000 to November 2001) at 38 sites distributed along the LMR were related to 15 physicochemical and 19 climatic variables. As a result, four different clusters were defined according to the similarity in assemblage composition and 80 indicator species were identified. While fish species richness was highest in the Mekong delta and lowest in the upper part of the LMR, the diversity index was highest in the middle part of the LMR and lowest in the delta. We found that fish assemblages changed along the environmental gradients and that the main drivers affecting the fish assemblage structure were the seasonal variation of temperature, precipitation, dissolved oxygen, pH and total phosphorus. Specifically, upstream assemblages were characterised by cyprinids and Pangasius catfish, well suited to low temperature, high dissolved oxygen and high pH. Fish assemblages in the delta were dominated by perch‐like fish and clupeids, more tolerant to high temperatures, and high levels of nutrients (nitrates and total phosphorus) and salinity. Overall, the patterns were consistent between seasons. Our study contributes to establishing the first holistic fish community study in the LMR.  相似文献   
5.
Street trees provide shade and increase human thermal comfort during hot summer. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution of shade provision of street trees in Boston, Massachusetts. The sky view factor (SVF), which influences the solar radiation to the ground and affects human thermal comfort, was used to indicate the contribution of street trees on shade provision. Google Street View (GSV) panoramas were used to calculate the photographic method based SVF (SVFP), with the consideration of all kinds of obstructions within street canyons. A building height model was used to calculate the simulation based SVF (SVFs), with consideration of obstruction of building blocks only. Considering the fact that street trees and building blocks are the two major obstructions of radiation within street canyons, therefore, the difference between the two SVF estimation results can be considered as the shade provision of street trees. The results show that street trees help to decrease the SVF by 24.61% in Boston, Massachusetts. The shading level varies spatially in the study area. Generally, the southwestern area has much higher shading level than the north and the east. We further explored the shading variation among different socioeconomic groups in the study area. Result shows that Hispanics tend to live in neighborhoods with lower shading level. This study can help to provide a reference for future urban greening projects for global climate change adaption.  相似文献   
6.
朱自果  阴启忠  张庆田  韩真  张倩  李勃 《园艺学报》2020,47(12):2290-2300
以欧洲葡萄‘粉红亚都蜜’(Vitis vinifera‘Yatomo Rose’)为材料,利用荧光定量PCR技术和转基因技术研究葡萄NAC转录因子DRL1基因对逆境的响应。欧洲葡萄‘粉红亚都蜜’在激素和逆境胁迫下,DRL1表达呈下降趋势,其中以ABA和干旱胁迫处理最为显著。在ABA处理下DRL1转基因烟草株系种子萌发率和根长均高于野生型。干旱处理下,转基因植株对干旱的耐受性降低,同时胁迫相关基因NtLEA5、NtP5CR1、NtPSCS1、NtERD10C和NtDREB3的表达水平比野生型显著下降。此外,DRL1转基因烟草茎中柱发育受到抑制,尤其是导管横切面积仅为野生型的58%。以上结果表明,DRL1基因可能作为1个负向调节子参与植物的干旱胁迫。  相似文献   
7.
基因的时空表达受转录因子的精确调控。植物在面对不利环境因素比如高温、低温、干旱、盐碱等胁迫时其细胞生理生化会迅速地从“舒适”状态转变进入“胁迫响应”状态。这种快速响应的状态转变依赖于植物对胁迫信号的感知及传递、激素通路(脱落酸、茉莉酸等)的激发、转录因子的活化等复杂的过程;最终植物通过胁迫相关基因的表达、次生代谢转变、抗氧化物质的积累等实现胁迫条件下细胞内环境的再平衡从而获得生存。植物MYB(v-MYB avian myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog)转录因子就是上述转变中的重要参与者。本文介绍了植物MYB转录因子的结构特征、分类,综述了近些年来MYB转录因子与非生物胁迫,以及植物激素应答过程相关的研究进展。  相似文献   
8.
Erosion and transport of soil has worldwide implications for agriculture, landscape stability, climate, natural hazards, and clean, renewable resources of water and air. Assured access to clean water and a healthy and safe environment requires an ethic of conservation and protection. The minimum scale in which these principles apply successfully is basin wide. These are the fundamental concerns of the Sino-US Centers for Soil and Water Conservation and Environmental Protection.  相似文献   
9.
采用生长试验、免疫放射分析和定量PCR方法,观察了生长猪血液中类胰岛素生长因子(IGF—Ⅰ)及其结合蛋白(IGFBP3)数量的变化和IGF—Ⅰ基因在肝中表达量的变化。结果显示,每1kg饲料中添加125-250mg铜,能够上调IGF-Ⅰ基因的表达量,显著提高猪的平均日增重,促进生长猪循环血液中IGF—Ⅰ浓度的增加。试验结果证实,铜是通过促进生长激素一胰岛素样生长因子轴相关因子的合成和分泌来发挥促生长作用的。  相似文献   
10.
论述了着床的生理机制。同时介绍了EGF、TGF、KGF和PDGF等生长因子对着床的调控作用。  相似文献   
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