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1.
成渝地区葡萄园营养状况初步研究与分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
在成渝地区具有代表性的葡萄园内进行了叶样和土样采集分析,结果表明:与标准值对比,大部分葡萄园内叶片中营养元素P与Mg含量水平较低,微量元素Mn与Fe含量水平则偏高;在大量使用有机肥的葡萄园内,土壤中速效性的营养元素N、P、K含量水平相对较高.  相似文献   
2.
Understanding soil degradation is especially important in the Mediterranean Region where desertification is a serious problem, and soil salinization is one of the causes. Salinity reduces soil quality, limits crop productivity and brings on long term soil degradation. Therefore the restoration of degraded soils is necessary to reduce land degradation, improve soil fertility and achieve a sustainable food production. The addition of compost supplemented with the beneficial microorganism Trichoderma harzianum isolate T78 to saline soils (NaCl) was studied to determine the impact on soil microbiology, which is the key to restore and rehabilitate degraded soils. The selected Trichoderma harzianum isolate T78 showed high salt tolerance despite the low osmotolerance of the genus Trichoderma . Increasing salt concentration reduced Trichoderma sp colony‐forming units (CFU) from natural soil and adversely affected soil microbial biomass C as well as dehydrogenase, β‐glucosidase, phosphatase and urease activities. Simultaneous amendment of the saline soil with compost and inoculation with T. harzianum T78 improved the soil microbiological quality; the number of T. harzianum T78 CFU did not decrease as NaCl increased. As T. harzianum strain T78 is salt tolerant, increasing the relative abundance of this specific strain would contribute to the rehabilitation of saline soils. Vineyard composts supplemented with T. harzianum T78 represent a promising approach for the treatment and improvement of saline soil properties. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
BACKGROUND: The potential of systemic neonicotinoid insecticides to control potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), a damaging pest of wine grapes in the eastern United States, was investigated. Soil or foliar applications were made to potted or field‐grown vines, and the response of leafhoppers was determined in clip cages over the following month on young or mature leaves. RESULTS: Foliar application of imidacloprid caused immediate and long‐lasting reductions in E. fabae survival on both leaf ages, whereas the activity of soil‐applied imidacloprid was delayed. Clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam all provided long‐lasting reduction in leafhopper survival on young and mature foliage when applied through either delivery route. However, the percentage of moribund nymphs was significantly greater on foliar‐treated vines and increased over time in mature and immature leaves compared with soil‐treated vines. Residue analysis of foliar‐applied imidacloprid showed an 89% decline in mature leaves from day 1 to day 27, and a 98% decline in immature leaves over the same time period. Comparison of soil‐applied clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam in field‐grown vines showed significant reduction in E. fabae only on mature leaves of vines treated with thiamethoxam. CONCLUSIONS: Neonicotinoids can control E. fabae in small vines, even in rapidly expanding foliage where this pest causes greatest injury. Soil application provides superior long‐term vine protection because declining residues on foliar‐treated vines lead to suboptimal activity within 2–3 weeks. Vineyard managers of susceptible cultivars may take advantage of this approach to E. fabae management by using foliar applications of the three neonicotinoids tested here, or by using soil‐applied thiamethoxam. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry  相似文献   
4.
竹荪是一种珍稀的食用菌种,其营养价值非常高,当前竹荪在我国的农业市场上被不断的扩 试,增加产量,在葡萄园内套种竹荪,利用葡萄叶作为自然的遮阴,可以很大程度上降低种植成本,此 项目一旦推广成功,不仅可以提升土地的使用率,还能提升葡萄和竹荪的产量。文章将针对在葡萄园 内套种竹荪的技术进行全面分析。  相似文献   
5.
6.
BACKGROUND: The increasing occurrence of QoI fungicide resistance in Plasmopara viticola (Berk. & MA Curtis) Berl. & DeToni populations is becoming a serious problem in the control of grapevine downy mildew. In Japan, the existence of QoI‐fungicide‐resistant P. viticola was reported in 2009. RESULTS: The QoI fungicide resistance in P. viticola samples collected from vineyards in Japan in 2008 and 2009 was monitored. Resistant P. viticola were detected in the regions where QoI fungicides have been introduced in accordance with the pest management programme, whereas in Hokkaido vineyards, where QoI fungicides have not yet been introduced, QoI‐fungicide‐resistant P. viticola were not found. CONCLUSION: Japan comprises thousands of islands and is physically isolated from other countries by the sea. Monitoring the emergence, incidence and distribution of QoI fungicide resistance in P. viticola populations in Japan is necessary to improve pest management strategies for downy mildew disease in Japanese vineyards. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry  相似文献   
7.
The vine-growing region of Lumbarda, located in the southeastern part of the island of Korcula, Croatia, has deep sandy soils (paleodunes) associated with the Mediterranean climate and provides optimal conditions for cultivating the autochthonous vine variety Vitis vinifera L. cv. Grk. Unfortunately, recently growers have noted declining yield and quality of grapes resulting from inadequate vineyard management (particularly unsustainable management of soil organic matter) and the occurrence of viral diseases. To revitalize and maintain the vineyards in the Lumbarda region, a detailed study was carried out involving intensive soil survey, analysis of grapevine nutrient status, positive clonal selection, and establishment of new vineyards with virus-free plant material. Preliminary soil survey results provided insight into the extent of variability in major physical and chemical soil characteristics. Based on these results, eight markedly different vineyards were selected for detailed analysis of grapevine nutrients [boron (B), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), phosphorus (P), and zinc (Zn)] at key development stages to detect potential imbalances that may hamper vine growth and affect its production. Leaf blades and petioles were sampled at midflowering and midveraison stages during the 2007–8 growing season from each of the selected vineyards. The greatest variability in nutrient content between the study sites was recorded for Cu, and considerable variability was also determined for B, Mn, Mg, and P. Differences in fertilization practices are the most common reasons for this variability. The results point to B deficiency in some of the vineyards and suggest potentially toxic levels of Cu in others.  相似文献   
8.
This study evaluated an in-field near-infrared (NIR) instrument to predict the contents of total nitrogen (TN), organic carbon (OC), potassium (K), sulfur (S), phosphorus (P), pH, and electric conductivity (EC) in soil vineyard samples (n = 70) sourced from three wine regions of Australia. Samples were analyzed using a portable NIR spectrophotometer (ASD FieldSpec III, 350–1800 nm). Partial least squares (PLS) regressions yield a coefficient of determination in calibration (R2) and a standard error in cross validation (SECV) of 0.74 (0.03) for TN, 0.92 (2.19) for S, 0.81 (0.42) for OC, 0.70 (109.2) for K, 0.84 (0.03) for EC, 0.83 (0.44) for pH, and 0.69 (24.6) for P, respectively. This study showed that it is possible to measure soil chemical properties in the vineyard, and the main advantages of this approach will be the speed, low cost, and ability to better manage and monitor soil fertility.  相似文献   
9.
应用土壤质地预测干旱区葡萄园土壤饱和导水率空间分布   总被引:7,自引:4,他引:3  
田间表层土壤饱和导水率的空间变异性是影响灌溉水分入渗和土壤水分再分布的主要因素之一,研究土壤饱和导水率的空间变化规律,有助于定量估计土壤水分的空间分布和设计农田的精准灌溉管理制度。为了探究应用其他土壤性质如质地、容重、有机质预测土壤饱和导水率空间分布的可行性,试验在7.6 hm2的葡萄园内,采用均匀网格25 m×25 m与随机取样相结合的方式,测定了表层(0~10 cm)土壤饱和导水率、粘粒、粉粒、砂粒、容重和有机质含量,借助经典统计学和地统计学,分析了表层土壤饱和导水率的空间分布规律、与土壤属性的空间相关性,并对普通克里格法、回归法和回归克里格法预测土壤饱和导水率空间分布的结果进行了对比。结果表明:1)土壤饱和导水率具有较强的变异性,平均值为1.64 cm/d,变异系数为1.17;2)表层土壤饱和导水率60%的空间变化是由随机性或小于取样尺度的空间变异造成;3)土壤饱和导水率与粘粒、粉粒、砂粒和有机质含量具有一定空间相关性,而与土壤容重几乎没有空间相关性;4)在中值区以土壤属性辅助的回归克里格法对土壤饱和导水率的预测精度较好,在低值和高值区其与普通克里格法表现类似。研究结果将为更好地描述土壤饱和导水率空间变异结构及更准确地预测其空间分布提供参考。  相似文献   
10.
Copper(Cu)-based fungicide application to control foliar diseases in grapevine(Vitis vinifera L.) can increase soil Cu availability. Brazilian soils have high natural Cu and manganese(Mn) concentrations, increasing the potential for toxicity to grapevine plants. Application of amendment substances can reduce the concentrations of toxic chemical species of Cu and Mn in soil solution, especially for the soils grown with young plants. We evaluated the chemical speciation of Cu and Mn in soil soluti...  相似文献   
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