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1.
烟草青枯病生防菌的筛选及其田间防效评价   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
为筛选出对烟草青枯病有效防治的生防菌,通过稀释涂布法从烟株根际土壤分离到一株具有明显拮抗作用的菌株69-1,经16S rDNA鉴定该菌株为壮观链霉菌(Streptomyces spectabilis),并用该菌株进行烟草青枯病田间防治试验。结果表明,与对照相比,经菌株69-1处理烟株茎围、有效叶片数、最大叶宽、最大叶长、上中下部烟叶单叶干重、最大叶面积、产量均显著增加,且对烟草青枯病的相对防效达60.42%,同时对不同处理组的初烤烟叶进行化学成分的检测分析,发现菌株69-1处理相对于对照组烟叶品质更佳。该菌株菌剂处理不仅可以提高烟株对烟草青枯病的防效,而且还提高烟叶品质和产量,可为烟草青枯病生物防治提供一定参考。  相似文献   
2.
不同保水剂对土壤特性及烤烟生长的影响   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
为提高秦巴山区黄棕壤烟田的土壤性能,减少季节性干旱对烤烟生长的影响,以不施保水剂为对照,在烟田整地起垄前分别施入聚丙烯酸钾(K-PAM)、聚丙烯酰胺(PAM)和腐殖酸钾(KHm)3种保水剂,测定施用不同保水剂后的土壤容重、土壤水分和烤烟生长状况、常规化学成分及经济性状。结果表明,聚丙烯酸钾和聚丙烯酰胺保水剂均降低0~40cm土层土壤容重,在烤烟旺长期提高0~40cm土层土壤水分。不同保水剂均可提高烤烟常规化学成分含量,其中腐殖酸钾保水剂显著降低烤烟的糖碱比和氮碱比。聚丙烯酸钾保水剂提高烤烟的产量、产值、上等烟比例及净增产值,而聚丙烯酰胺和腐殖酸钾保水剂处理组则降低烤烟的净增产值。因此,建议秦巴山区黄棕壤烟田选用聚丙烯酸钾类保水剂。  相似文献   
3.
提高安徽烤烟上部叶可用性的技术思路与对策   总被引:9,自引:3,他引:6  
王能如  王东胜 《安徽农业科学》2001,29(2):247-249,261
分析了提高安徽烤烟上部叶可用性的重要性 ;根据安徽实际 ,提出了新的技术思路与对策  相似文献   
4.
烤烟适宜施氮量试验初报   总被引:9,自引:3,他引:6  
试验结果表明,烤烟施氮量以90.0~112.5kg/hm2为佳,在此条件下,烤烟的产量和产值最高。  相似文献   
5.
This review describes the discovery and identification of the pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs) from tobacco. In crude leaf extracts the PRs are distinguished from the proteins in uninfected plants by their solubility at pH 3, resistance to a range of proteases, and mobility in polyacrylamide gels upon electrophoresis (PAGE) in non-denaturing conditions. PAGE has been used as a qualitative and semi-quantitative assay for PRs, and their migration in gels made from different acrylamide concentrations has been used to identify charge and size isomers and electrophoretically identical PRs in different tobacco cultivars. The subunit composition and molecular weight (mol. wt) of the four PRs identified first in Xanthi-nc were determined by SDS-PAGE; staining the gels has shown that these same four proteins in Samsun NN did not contain carbohydrate, lipid or nucleic acid, nor were they isozymic forms of twenty five enzymes known to increase in activity following infection with TMV. Evidence suggests that most of the PRs in Xanthi-nc and Samsun NN are extracellular.The purification of several PRs from Xanthi-nc, Samsun NN and other tobaccos is described, as well as their mol. wt, subunit and amino acid composition. PRs 1a, b and c consist of a single polypeptide and have similar mol. wt and amino acid compositions. Antisera prepared against purified Xanthi-nc b1 protein have been used to determine serological relationships between PRs and form the basis of a very sensitive quantitative assay using ELISA. The regulation of synthesis of some PRs has been shown to involve translational control.  相似文献   
6.
The coding sequences in RNA2 for the coat proteins (CP) of strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRSV) were modified and amplified using polymerase chain amplification reactions (PCR) to facilitate their expression inAgrobacterium tumefaciens-transformedNicotiana tabacum Xanthi-nc. The coding sequences for the smaller capsid protein (S, 29kDa) and that for the theoretical precursor of L and S (P, 73kDa) had ATG initiation codon sequences added at the 5-proximal Ser/Gly (S/G) cleavage site in the unmodified sequence. The sequence coding for the larger of the two proteins of mature SLRSV capsids (L, 44kDa) had an ATG codon added at its 5 S/G site and a TAG stop codon sequence added at the 3-proximal S/G site. The P, L and S proteins were expressedin planta to a maximum concentration of 0.01 % of total extractable proteins but did not assemble into virus-like particles. When challenged by mechanical inoculation with virus particles or viral RNA, and compared with control plants, tobacco plants (primary transgenic clones or S1 and S2, kanamycin-resistant seedlings) expressing the virus capsid subunits separately, or their precursor, decreased the accumulation of SLRSV particles in inoculated leaves and fewer plants became invaded systemically. In experiments in which the roots of seedlings were exposed to SLRSV-carrying vector nematodes (Xiphinema diversicaudatum), SLRSV was detected in the roots of non-transformed control tobacco plants (6/20) and in transgenic tobacco expressing the L protein (7/40), but not in any of 25 tobacco plants expressing the S protein or in 35 expressing the P protein. This is the second example of CP-mediated resistance to virus inoculation by nematode vectors.  相似文献   
7.
The induction of a hypersensitive reaction in Samsun NN tobacco by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) at 20°C leads to the development of both localized and systemic acquired resistance, and is associated with the appearance of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR's) and large increases in peroxidase activity and ethylene production. Salicylic acid (SA) induced a similar resistance in treated plant parts and occasionally also in untreated upper leaves of plants of which three lower leaves had been injected. SA also induced the same four PR's, but these were confined to the treated leaves. Thus, the connection between the presence of PR's and the reduction of TMV multiplication and spread may not be direct.In contrast to TMV, SA did not stimulate ethylene production and hardly increased peroxidase activity. Induction of acquired resistance and PR's by SA developed equally well at 20°C and at 32°C. However, pricking leaves with needles moistened with the ethylene-releasing compound ethephon mimicked TMV infection in inducing acquired resistance and PR's in both treated and untreated leaves at 20°C, but not at 32°C. Ethephon increased peroxidase activity at both temperatures, but only at 20°C dit it induce changes in both the anodic and the cathodic isoenzymes that were similar to those induced as a result of TMV infection. SA induced PR's and reduced TMV multiplication in Samsun tobacco, and inhibited virus spread in Samsun NN at 32°C.These observation indicate that neither the induction of PR's, nor the development of acquired resistance is temperature-sensitive. On the other hand, the effects of ethephon are temperature-sensitive in the same way as the hypersensitive response to TMV. It can thus be hypothesized that ethylene, produced naturally during the hypersensitive reaction of tobacco to TMV, leads to the temperature-sensitive synthesis or release of a presumably benzoic acid-type compound that functions as the natural inducer of PR's and acquired resistance. Although vanillic acid has been shown to accumulate in hypersensitively reacting tobacco leaves, it produced none of the effects of SA, and thus cannot be the natural inducer.Samenvatting Inductie van een overgevoeligheidsreactie in Samsun NN-tabak door tabaksmozaïekvirus (TMV) bij 20°C leidt tot de ontwikkeling van een verworven resistentie die zowel lokaal als systemisch werkzaam is, en gaat samen met het verschijnen van pathogenesis-related proteins (PR's) en sterke toename in de activitieit van peroxidase en de produktie van ethyleen. Salicylzuur (SA) induceerde een vergelijkbare resistentie in behandelde plantedelen en af en toe ook in niet behandelde bovenbladeren van planten waarvan drie onderbladeren waren ingespoten. SA induceerde ook dezelfde vier PR's, maar deze waren beperkt tot de behandelde bladeren. Er bestaat dus geen directe samenhang tussen de aanwezigheid van PR's en de remming van de vermeerdering en uitbreiding van TMV in de plant.In tegenstelling tot TMV stimuleerde SA de ethyleenproduktie niet en verhoogde het de peroxidaseactiviteit nauwelijks. Inductie van verworven resistentie en PR's door SA trad even goed op bij 32°C als bij 20°C. Net als infectie met TMV leidde aanprikken van bladeren met naalden die gedoopt waren in een oplossing van ethefon — waaruit in het blad ethyleen vrijkomt — echter tot inductie van verworven resistentie en PR's in zowel behandelde als onbehandelde bladeren bij 20°C, maar niet bij 32°C. Ethefon verhoogde de peroxidaseactiviteit bij beide temperaturen, maar alleen bij 20°C induceerde het veranderingen in zowel de anodische als de kathodische isoënzymen die vergelijkbaar waren met die welke geïnduceerd werden als gevolg van infectie met TMV. SA induceerde PR's en verminderde de vermenigvuldiging van TMV in Samsun tabak, en remde de uitbreiding van het virus in Samsun NN bij 32°C.Deze waarnemingen tonen dat noch de inductie van PR's, noch de ontwikkeling van verworven resistentie een temperatuurgevoelig proces is. Daarentegen zijn de effecten van ethefon op dezelfde wijze temperatuurgevoelig als de overgevoeligheidsreactie op TMV. Men kan daarom veronderstellen dat ethyleen, dat op natuurlijke wijze geproduceerd wordt tijdens de overgevoeligheidsreactie van tabak op TMV, aanleiding geeft tot een temperatuurgevoelig proces, namelijk de synthese of het vrijkomen van een verbinding, vermoedelijk een benzoëzuurderivaat, dat fungeert als de natuurlijke inductor van PR's en verworven resistentie. Hoewel is aangetoond dat vanillinezuur zich ophoopt in overgevoelig reagerende tabaksbladeren, veroorzaakte deze verbinding geen enkel van de effecten van SA. Vanillinezuur kan dus niet de natuurlijke inductor zijn.  相似文献   
8.
Two viruses, detected frequently in the Netherlands in pelargonium, were identified by serology and test plant reactions. Antisera were prepared and an ELISA procedure was developed to detect the viruses in pelargonium.One of the viruses, PFBV-N, proved to be pelargonium flower-break virus. With the antiserum to PFBV-N, it could be detected reliably throughout the year inPelargonium zonale Springtime Irene.The other virus, PLPV-N, was serologically closely related to pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV) and to pelargonium ring pattern virus (PRPV), as were an old virus isolate from Saturnus, collected in the Netherlands in 1971 (L128), and PLPV isolates from Yugoslavia (PLPV-Y) and Denmark (PLPV-D). There were only minor differences in host-plant reactions between the virus isolates. Based on these tests, PLPV and PRPV are considered as isolates of the same virus, for which, for practical reasons, the name pelargonium line pattern virus is proposed.PLPV could be reliably detected by ELISA inP. zonale Springtime Irene and Amanda throughout the year with only a few exceptions. InPelargonium peltatum Tavira, however, reslts were erratic due to uneven distribution of virus in the plant. Best results were obtained when petioles of fully expanded leaves were tested.  相似文献   
9.
Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) is one of the most destructive citrus virus diseases in the world. The construction of an engineered antibody, EMBL accession number AJ278109, able to specifically recognize its antigen, i.e. the coat protein of CTV, directly on infected plant material without any purification or manipulation of the entire woody plant. The potential uses of this engineered antibody are discussed.  相似文献   
10.
胶体金免疫层析法快速检测烟草环斑病毒   总被引:14,自引:3,他引:14  
采用柠檬酸三钠还原法制备胶体金颗粒 ,标记烟草环斑病毒的抗体 ,制成免疫层析检测试纸条。检测粗提纯病毒的灵敏度为 1 0 0 0ng/ml,病汁液稀释 1 0 0 0倍后仍可快速检出。对大豆病种子、烟草冻干病叶等不同材料进行检测也有良好的效果 ,1~ 2min即可出现结果。用 9种不同的病毒进行测试 ,未出现非特异性反应。  相似文献   
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