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1.
土壤团聚体有机碳研究进展   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
土壤有机碳是衡量土壤肥力的重要指标,对于促进土壤养分循环、增加养分有效性有重要作用。土壤团聚体是土壤的重要组成部分,是组成土壤结构的最小单元,受到自然因素和人为因素的影响,其形成转化过程与土壤固碳过程息息相关,因而研究团聚体和有机碳的关系及团聚体有机碳影响因素对于土壤结构的改善和土壤质量的提升具有重要意义。本文通过对文献的总结,明晰了土壤团聚体和有机碳的关系,阐述了土壤类型、施肥方式、土地利用和矿区复垦对土壤团聚体有机碳的影响,并从生物质炭的长期定位研究和复垦矿区的土壤修复两方面对土壤团聚体有机碳的研究进行展望,研究结果可为合理的农业生产提供科学依据。  相似文献   
2.
不同施肥处理对马铃薯农田土壤理化性状及产量的影响   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
为了探究不同施肥处理对马铃薯农田土壤理化性状及产量的影响,试验地采用马铃薯连作模式,设置3个施肥处理,即:单施化肥(T)、有机肥配施化肥(YTF 1/2)、全量有机肥(YTF)。结果表明:在不同施肥处理下马铃薯农田土壤的理化性质和马铃薯产量发生了变化,其中变化最为明显的土壤指标有土壤容重、孔隙度、饱和导水率、有效磷。YTF处理较T处理可分别显著(P<0.05)降低土壤容重16.8%,增加土壤孔隙度12.7%,提升饱和导水率25.3%。YTF处理可显著提升土壤有效磷含量43.0%,但各处理间土壤pH、有机碳、全氮、全磷、碱解氮、速效钾之间差异并未达到显著水平。同时,较之T处理,YTF处理亦可显著提升土壤团聚体含量。YTF和YTF 1/2处理可分别较T处理提升马铃薯产量24.6%和12.8%。因此,施用有机肥不仅可以改善土壤结构,改良土壤物理性状,亦能促产增收。  相似文献   
3.
In the oldest commercial wine district of Australia, the Hunter Valley, there is the threat of soil salinization because marine sediments underlie the area. To understand the risk requires information about the spatial distribution of soil properties. Electromagnetic (EM) induction instruments have been used to identify and map the spatial variation of average soil salinity to a certain depth. However, soils vary with depth dependent on soil forming factors. We collected data from a single‐frequency and multiple‐coil DUALEM‐421 along a toposequence. We inverted this data using EM4Soil software and evaluated the resultant 2‐dimensional model of true electrical conductivity (σ – mS/m) with depth against electrical conductivity of saturated soil pastes (ECp – dS/m). Using a fitted linear regression (LR) model calibration approach and by varying the forward model (cumulative function‐CF and full solution‐FS), inversion algorithm (S1 and S2), damping factor (λ) and number of arrays, we determined a suitable electromagnetic conductivity image (EMCI), which was optimal (R2 = 0.82) when using the full solution, S2, λ = 3.6 and all six coil arrays. We conducted an uncertainty analysis of the LR model used to estimate the electrical conductivity of the saturated soil‐paste extract (ECe – dS/m). Our interpretation based on estimates of ECe suggests the approach can identify differences in salinity, how these vary with parent material and how topography influences salt distribution. The results provide information leading to insights into how soil forming factors and agricultural practices influence salinity down a toposequence and how this can guide soil management practices.  相似文献   
4.
Plants have developed different mechanisms to absorb and solubilize phosphorus (P) in the soil, especially in environments with low P availability. This study evaluated the effects of different winter cover crops on soil P availability in a clayey subtropical (Hapludox) soil receiving soluble P fertilizer and a rock phosphate applied to the summer crop, under no‐tillage. The experiment was carried out over 3 yrs (2009–2011) with five different cover crop species: common vetch, fodder radish, ryegrass, black oat, white clover and fallow as control. The soil was sampled after the third year of cover crop cultivation and analysed for inorganic and organic P forms according to the well‐established Hedley fractionation procedure. Phosphate fertilizers promoted accumulation of both labile and nonlabile P pools in soil in the near surface layer, especially under rock phosphate. Fertilizer applications were not able to change P fractions in deeper layers, emphasizing that the Brazilian clayey soils are a sink of P from fertilizer and its mobility is almost nil. Although the cover crops recycled a great amount of P in tissue, in a short‐term evaluation (3 yrs) they only changed the content of moderately labile P in soil, indicating that long‐term studies are needed for more conclusive results.  相似文献   
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6.
Integrated crop–livestock–forest is a promising strategy to improve soil quality. It comprises four different integrated farming systems: crop–livestock, crop–forest, forest–livestock and crop–livestock–forest. This work systematically reviewed studies about integrated crop–livestock–forest systems and soil quality. A total of 92 papers were retrieved from the Web of Science—Clarivate Analytics platform, and the following information was analysed: publication year, institution, region of the studied site, type of integrated system, soil type, tillage system, maximum soil depth and the soil quality indicators assessed. Most studies were published in the second half of the 2010s. Brazil is a prominent focus of research about soil quality and integrated crop–livestock–forest systems, with significant contribution from its central and southern regions. The Embrapa was the main publishing institution, present in over one‐third of the studies. Crop–livestock was the most common integrated system, Ferralsols was the most common soil group, and most of the studied soils were clayey. No tillage was the main tillage system. Most studies focused on the topsoil, assessing physical and/or chemical soil quality indicators. More emphasis on biological indicators of soil quality is required, as well as assessments integrating biological, physical and chemical indicators of soil quality. Future works should compare different integrated systems, including assessments deeper in the soil profile, especially in systems with the forest component, and also in sandy and silty soils. Soil quality indicators that have been rarely used should be further tested. Novel indicators should be added to better understand the promotion of soil quality by integrated crop–livestock–forest systems.  相似文献   
7.
为了获得简单、易操作、准确度高的橡胶园酸性、中性土壤交换性钙、镁测定方法,本试验通过响应面优化试验,建立称样量、提取液体积、提取方式与交换性钙测定结果之间的数学模型。结果表明:在25℃条件下,以1 mol/L的乙酸铵为土壤浸提液,称样量为2 g、提取液体积175 mL、振荡36 min,为橡胶园酸性、中性土壤的最佳提取条件。将上述条件下得到的结果与标准方法条件下得到的结果相对比,两结果的相对误差在1.25~3.04之间,均属合理范围。利用标准样品对优化方法进行试验验证,结果与推荐值相符。改进后的方法分析成本低、操作简便、测定结果准确、稳定性好,可用于橡胶园酸性、中性土壤交换性钙、镁的测定。  相似文献   
8.
Cost‐effective strategies for using chemically amended organic fertilizers need to be developed to minimize nutrient losses in surface and groundwater. Coupling specific soil physical and chemical characteristics with amendment type could increase their effectiveness. This study investigated how water‐extractable phosphorus (P) was affected by chemical amendments added to pig slurry and how this effect varied with soil properties. A 3‐month incubation study was conducted on 18 different mineral soils, stored at 10 °C and 75% humidity and treated with unamended and amended slurry which was incorporated at a rate equivalent to 19 kg total P (TP )/ha. The amendments examined were commercial‐grade liquid alum, applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al:TP ], and commercial‐grade liquid poly‐aluminium chloride (PAC ), applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al:TP ]. These amendments were previously identified by the authors as being effective in reducing incidental losses of P. The efficacy of the amendments varied with the soil test P, the degree of P saturation (DPS ) and the Mehlich aluminium, iron and calcium, but not soil texture. Chemical amendments were most effective in soils with DPS over approximately 20%. Due to their high cost, the incorporation of amendments into existing management practices can only be justified as part of a holistic management plan where soils have high DPS .  相似文献   
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10.
长武塬区苹果园和农田相互转换的深层土壤水环境效应   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
研究长武塬区苹果园和农田相互转换后0~1 000 cm土壤含水量特征,分析了苹果园土壤干燥化和苹果园转换为农田后土壤水分的恢复效应。结果表明:2、7、17、23、29 a苹果园200~1 000 cm的平均土壤含水量分别为22.8%、21.4%、16.8%、15.4%、14.9%。500~1 000 cm土层中,29 a苹果园平均土壤含水量(14.5%)高于23 a的果园(13.3%);17~29 a的苹果园均表现为轻度干燥化;基于苹果园和农田转换后土壤水分变化情况估算,苹果园最大种植年限为21 a。苹果园转换为农田1、5、10 a后,农田200~1 000 cm土层土壤含水量分别为:15.3%、15.7%和16.2%,恢复到土壤稳定湿度以上的土层厚度分别为140 cm(1 a)、220 cm(5 a)和400 cm(10 a)。  相似文献   
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