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1.
综述皱木耳Auricularia delicata新品种"鹿肚耳"的形态特征和食用特点,测定其与黑木耳、毛木耳、毛木耳白色变种"玉木耳"人工栽培子实体的基本营养成分、矿质元素含量和氨基酸组成,评价其营养价值。结果表明:鹿肚耳热量235 kJ/100g、蛋白质7.21 g/100g、脂肪1.5 g/100g、碳水化合物48.4 g/100g、总膳食纤维29.3g/100g,含有5种常量元素、5种必需微量元素,其中,硒元素含量是黑木耳的4.6倍;含有人体所需的8种必需氨基酸,氨基酸化学评分(CS)和氨基酸评分(ASS)分别为12和18.86,色氨酸为其限制性氨基酸;蛋白质综合评价低于其他3种木耳。  相似文献   
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鸡球虫病、坏死性肠炎等肠道感染可能对消化道内源性氨基酸损失产生较大影响。虽然对这一课题的了解不多,但相关文献报道了这些疾病对氨基酸表观回肠消化率的影响。在确定肠内氨基酸流动时必须考虑多种因素,包括肉鸡的年龄、是否有病原体、肠内氨基酸代谢等。胃肠道和肝脏共同承担向外周血释放氨基酸的任务,这些氨基酸是支持蛋白质合成所必需的。一般来说,肠道是氨基酸代谢反应的一个非常活跃的器官系统,它首先会满足自身对氨基酸的需求,然后才会将氨基酸输送到机体其他部分。因此,本综述旨在讨论影响肠内氨基酸流动的因素及日粮氨基酸和肠道感染对氨基酸利用和代谢的影响。  相似文献   
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Goose fatty liver is a specific type of nonalcoholic fatty liver that is protected from harmful effects associated with severe steatosis. Our previous findings suggest that suppression of the complement C5 may be relevant, but the mechanism is unclear. Therefore, in this study, we first verified the expression pattern of complement genes (including C5) during goose fatty liver formation and then determined the liver fat content and fatty acid composition by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), followed by selecting the differential metabolites to treat HepG2, goose and mouse primary hepatocytes, aiming to explore the mechanism of C5 and inflammation suppression in goose fatty liver. The data confirmed the suppression of complement genes (including C5) in goose fatty livers. Moreover, fat content was significantly higher in fatty liver versus normal ones, with oleic acid and palmitic acid dominantly accounting for the difference. In line with this, high concentration of palmitate led to down regulation of C5 expression in goose primary hepatocytes whereas upregulation in mouse primary hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. In conclusion, regulation on C5 expression by fatty liver related factors including high level of palmitic acid may contribute to the protection of goose liver from severe hepatic steatosis.  相似文献   
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Heat stress in poultry is deleterious to productive performance. Chlorogenic acid (CGA) exerts antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplemental CGA on the intestinal health and cecal microbiota composition of young hens challenged with acute heat stress. 100-day-old Hy-line brown pullets were randomly divided into four groups. The control group (C) and heat stress group (HS) received a basal diet. HS + CGA300 group and HS + CGA600 group received a basal diet supplemented with 300- and 600-mg/kg CGA, respectively, for 2 weeks before heat stress exposure. Pullets of HS, HS + CGA300, and HS + CGA600 group were exposed to 38°C for 4 h while the control group was maintained at 25°C. In this study, dietary CGA supplementation had effect on mitigate the decreased T-AOC and T-SOD activities and the increasing of IL-1β and TNFα induced by acute heat stress. Dietary supplementation with 600 mg/kg CGA had better effect on increasing the relative abundance of beneficial bacterial genera, such as Rikenellaceae RC9_gut_group, Ruminococcaceae UCG-005, and Christensenellaceae R-7_group, and deceasing bacteria genera involved in inflammation, such as Sutterella species. Therefore, CGA can ameliorate acute heat stress damage through suppressing inflammation and improved antioxidant capacity and cecal microbiota composition.  相似文献   
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实验观察了微量注射 NOS抑制剂 L -NAME及微量联合注射 NO的前体 L-精氨酸( L-Arg) L-NAME于大鼠中脑腹侧被盖区( VTA)对该部位多巴胺神经元的调节。发现VTA注射 L -NAME( 1 mg/ 5μL )后 ,伏隔核( Acb)多巴胺 ( DA )代谢产物—双羟苯乙酸( DOPAC)水平升高到注射前的 1 2 2 .5% ( P <0 .0 0 1 ) ,小剂量注射 L-NAME( 0 .2 mg/ 5μL)对伏隔核 DOPAC水平无明显影响 ;同样方法联合注射 L-Arg( 3 0 0 μg/ 5μL) L-NAME( 1 mg/5μL)后 ,伏隔核 DOPAC水平无明显变化。结论 :VTA微量注射 L-NAME兴奋了该部位的DA神经元 ,而 L -Arg L -NAME联合注射 ,却不能影响 DA神经元的活动 ,说明 NO可以通过L-Arg-NOS-NO途径参与 VTA多巴胺神经元的调节  相似文献   
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Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii Vitman) and little bluestem [Schizachyrium scoparium (Michaux) Nash.] are native to the North America and are important forage grasses and ornamental grasses. Both grasses are proposed as ideal biomass producers for cellulosic ethanol production. To apply genetic transformation, which is an important tool for incorporating desirable agronomic traits into plants to both species, however requires an efficient and reproducible regeneration protocol. We used mature caryopses from big and little bluestem as explants and tested the effect of various combinations of 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2, 4-D) (1, 2, 3, 4 or 5 mg l−1) and kinetin (KT) (0, 0.1 or 0.2 mg l−1) on embryogenic callus induction with LS as the basal medium. The highest percentage of embryogenic calli induction occurred on medium containing 2, 4-D alone at 2 mg l−1 for ‘Bison’ and on medium containing 4 mg l−1 2, 4-D alone for ‘Bonilla’ big bluestem. For little bluestem, the highest percentage of embryogenic callus induction occurred on medium containing 3 mg l−1 2, 4-D plus 0.1 mg l−1 kinetin, suggesting that addition of KT is beneficial. Shoot regeneration took place on LS basal medium without any plant growth regulator for both species, although the addition of KT increased both regeneration frequency and the number of shoots produced per callus. Rooting of shoots reaching about 2 cm long occurred readily with or without α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). Rooted plantlets were all successfully established in the soil.  相似文献   
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