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蚯蚓粪对黄土区坡耕地径流产沙和硝态氮流失特征的影响
引用本文:邵凡凡,吴军虎.蚯蚓粪对黄土区坡耕地径流产沙和硝态氮流失特征的影响[J].水土保持学报,2020,34(1):71-77.
作者姓名:邵凡凡  吴军虎
作者单位:西安理工大学省部共建西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室, 西安 710048,西安理工大学省部共建西北旱区生态水利国家重点实验室, 西安 710048
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(51239009);西北旱区生态水利工程国家重点实验室科研项目(2016ZZKT-9);陕西省教育厅重点实验室科研计划项目(17JS096)
摘    要:蚯蚓粪对土壤入渗和水稳性团聚体组成均有显著影响,通过在黄土区空闲农田坡耕地试验小区采用混施和层施的方式分别施入0,200,400,600,800 g/m2 5个不同梯度的蚯蚓粪,研究其对降雨条件下坡面径流泥沙和养分流失的调控作用。结果表明:(1)2种施加方式均有效延缓了产流起始时间,且层施800 g/m2处理下的产流起始时间较CK推迟了3.88 min,延缓效果最为明显;(2)层施800 g/m2处理下可以显著减小产流前期的径流增大速率,并推迟进入稳定入渗阶段的时间,累积径流量随时间的变化均可以很好地用幂函数描述;(3)混施和层施800 g/m2的2种处理下,稳定产沙率分别较CK显著减小79.61%和86.74%;累积泥沙量随时间变化均可以用幂函数描述,且初始产沙率均随蚯蚓粪施加量的增大呈显著减小趋势。(4)较混施而言,层施可以显著减小径流中硝态氮的浓度,且施加量越大,效果越明显。总之,蚯蚓粪施入均会对黄土区空闲坡耕地水土养分流失起到-定的调控作用,当施加量较大且施加方式为层施时,可以起到良好的保水控沙控肥效果。

关 键 词:蚯蚓粪  产流产沙  黄土坡地  人工模拟降雨  土壤改良剂  硝态氮
收稿时间:2019/7/26 0:00:00

Earthworm Casts on Sediment Yield and Nitrate Nitrogen Loss with the Runoff in Slope Farmland of Loess Area
SHAO Fanfan and WU Junhu.Earthworm Casts on Sediment Yield and Nitrate Nitrogen Loss with the Runoff in Slope Farmland of Loess Area[J].Journal of Soil and Water Conservation,2020,34(1):71-77.
Authors:SHAO Fanfan and WU Junhu
Institution:State Key Laboratory of Eco-hydraulics in Northwest Arid Region, Xi''an University of Technology, Xi''an 710048 and State Key Laboratory of Eco-hydraulics in Northwest Arid Region, Xi''an University of Technology, Xi''an 710048
Abstract:The application of earthworm casts has significant effects on soil infiltration and aggregate composition. This study was carried out in the test area of the idle farmland of the loess area. Earthworm casts were applied in two methods:(A) earthworm casts mixed with the soil of the (0-5 cm) surface layer and (B) mulched 5 cm of soil layer after broadcast application of earthworm casts. Different levels of earthworm casts were designed to study on sediment yield and nitrate nitrogen loss with the runoff under rainfall conditions. The results showed that:(1) Both application methods effectively delayed the time of runoff occurring. The time of runoff occurring under layer application of 800 g/m2 was delayed by 3.88 min compared with CK, and the delay effect was the most obvious. (2) The layer application of 800 g/m2 could significantly reduce the rate of runoff increase in the early stage and delay the time of entering the stable stage. The variation of cumulative runoff with time could be well described by a power function. (3) Under the mixed application and layer application at 800 g/m2, the sediment yield in the stable phase was significantly reduced by 79.61% and 86.74% than CK. The accumulated sediment yields could be well described by the power function with the time, and the initial sediment yield was significantly reduced with the increase of the amount of earthworm casts. (4) Mixed application could significantly reduce the nitrate concentration in runoff. When the amount of application was large and the application method was layer application, it could play a good role to prevent the sediment and chemical solute loss with runoff.
Keywords:earthworm casts  runoff and sediment yield  loess slope  artificial rainfall  soil amendment  nitrate nitrogen
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