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湘西花垣河花垣镇地段水体污染特征及来源解析
引用本文:张海涛,石雪芳,刘亚斌,许云海,杨海君.湘西花垣河花垣镇地段水体污染特征及来源解析[J].水土保持研究,2017(5):329-336.
作者姓名:张海涛  石雪芳  刘亚斌  许云海  杨海君
作者单位:1. 湖南农业大学植物保护学院,长沙,410128;2. 花垣县环境监测中心站,湖南花垣,416499
基金项目:湖南省自然科学基金(2016JJ5015),长沙市科技计划(K1403022-31)
摘    要:为探究矿业经济发展背景下花垣河重污染地段水体污染特征及污染物来源,于2007年1月至2015年12月对湘西花垣河重污染地段狮子桥电站下游200 m、川心城、教化码头、汇合口、龙科村下游500 m及对照点兄弟河浮桥电站上游100 m共6个点位水体中的Pb,Cd,Mn,Zn,Cr6+,高锰酸盐指数,氨氮,COD,BOD5的含量进行测定,并对监测值进行了相关性及主成分分析.结果表明:研究区水体主要以Mn、氨氮污染为主,Mn和氨氮在2007-2015年间最大监测值分别达到了2.561 9 mg/L,2.539 mg/L,9年来除氨氮、BOD5呈先降后升外,其他污染物监测值总体呈下降趋势;Pb-Zn,Mn-Cd,Cr-Cd,Cr-Mn,氨氮—高锰酸盐指数,COD-高锰酸盐指数,COD-氨氮之间具有显著正相关性(p<0.01),COD-Zn,COD-Pb之间存显著负相关性(p<0.01),高锰酸盐指数-Pb,氨氮-Pb之间具有显著负相关性(p<0.05),BOD5 高锰酸盐指数,BOD5 氨氮之间存在显著正相关性(p<0.05),说明以上污染物相互之间有较大影响;花垣河点位1-5之间具有显著正相关性(p<0.01),说明各监测点位相互之间存在较大影响;主成分的主要影响因素为高锰酸盐指数,氨氮,COD,BOD5,Cd,Mn,Cr等的监测值,点位1-5污染程度排序为:点位5>点位1>点位2>点位3>点位4;污染成因分析结果表明,花垣河水体中存在无机污染和有机污染,周边企业废水和居民生活污水是花垣河水体污染的主要来源.

关 键 词:湘西花垣河  相关性  主成分分析  水体污染物  变化规律  成因分析

Characteristics and Source Identification of Water Pollution of Huayuan River in Huayuan Town Section,Western Hu'nan Province
ZHANG Haitao,SHI Xuefang,LIU Yabin,XU Yunhai,YANG Haijun.Characteristics and Source Identification of Water Pollution of Huayuan River in Huayuan Town Section,Western Hu'nan Province[J].Research of Soil and Water Conservation,2017(5):329-336.
Authors:ZHANG Haitao  SHI Xuefang  LIU Yabin  XU Yunhai  YANG Haijun
Abstract:With the economic development of mining industry,in oder to explore the characteristics and sources of water pollution in the heavily polluted section of Huayuan River,we collected water samples from Jan.2007 to Dec.2015 at 6 sites,including 200 m downstream of the Lion Bridge hydropower station,Chuanxincheng,Jiaohua dock,Huihekou,500 m downstream of the Longke village and 100 m upstream of the Fuqiao hydropower station of Brothers River (as the control point).The contents of Pb,Cd,Mn,Zn,Cr6 +,permanganate index,ammonia nitrogen,COD,and BOD5 were determined and analyzed by correlation and principal component analyses.The results indicated that Mn and ammonia-nitrogen mainly caused the pollution.The highest monitoring values of Mn and ammonia-nitrogen were 2.561 9 mg/L and 2.539 mg/L,respectively.The contents of ammonia-nitrogen and BOD5 decreased firstly and then increased while the other pollutant contents kept at a trend of decreasing during the nine years.Pb-Zn,Mn-Cd,Cr-Cd,Cr-Mn,ammonia-nitrogen-permanganate index,COD-permanganate index,COD-ammonia-nitrogen were significantly positively correlated,respectively (p<0.01),while COD-Zn,COD-Pb had significant negative correlation (<0.01),permanganate index-Pb,ammonia-nitrogen-Pb had a significant negative correlation (p<0.05),BOD5-permanganate index,BOD5-ammonia-nitrogen had a significant positive correlation (p<0.05),indicating that these pollutants greatly interacted each other.At the same time,significant positive correlation also existed through site 1 to site 5 (p<0.01),suggesting that there were the great influences among these monitoring sites.By the principal component analysis,the main influence factors were permanganate index,ammonia-nitrogen,COD,BOD5,Cd,Mn and Cr.The pollution degrees of the six monitoring sites followed the sequence:site 5>site 1>site 2>site 3>site 4>site 6.The results of the cause analysis showed that both inorganic and organic pollution existed in the water of Huayuan River,the wastewater from the enterprises around and the domestic sewage were the major sources of river water pollution.
Keywords:western Huayuan River  correlation  principal component analysis  water pollutants  variation  cause analysis
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