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机械化生态沃土耕作模式提高土壤质量及作物产量
引用本文:张银平,杜瑞成,刁培松,耿端阳.机械化生态沃土耕作模式提高土壤质量及作物产量[J].农业工程学报,2015,31(7):33-38.
作者姓名:张银平  杜瑞成  刁培松  耿端阳
作者单位:山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院,淄博 255049,山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院,淄博 255049,山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院,淄博 255049,山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院,淄博 255049
基金项目:山东省现代农业产业技术体系玉米产业创新团队建设项目
摘    要:为了解决小麦玉米两作区连年翻耕造成的土壤养分、水分流失、土壤沙化以及长期不耕作不利于作物高产等问题,将翻耕、旋耕、深松等适当结合,建立一种械化生态沃土耕作模式,设置一定的周期,周期内对土壤进行适度的耕作,并与连年翻耕和连年免耕模式进行试验对比。试验结果表明:5 a周期内机械化生态沃土耕作模式可以显著提高各层土壤有机质含量,0~10 cm提高最大达0.2%;连年免耕在前3 a可以显著提高0~10 cm土壤有机质含量,后2 a有所减少;连年翻耕在前3a可以显著提高>20~30 cm土壤有机质含量,后2a显著减少。土壤含水率表现为机械化生态沃土>连年免耕>连年翻耕,随着时间变化,差异越来越显著。0~10 cm土壤容重在5%水平上机械化生态沃土耕作模式和连年免耕显著低于连年翻耕。机械化生态沃土耕作模式下作物产量显著高于连年免耕和连年翻耕,2014年增产优势最明显,比连年翻耕小麦增产30.8%,玉米增产28.4%,比连年免耕小麦增产22.5%,玉米增产20.9%。

关 键 词:作物  机械化  土壤水分  生态沃土  耕作模式  土壤有机质  容重  产量
收稿时间:2015/1/31 0:00:00
修稿时间:3/6/2015 12:00:00 AM

Mechanical and ecological tillage pattern improving soil quality and crop yields
Zhang Yinping,Du Ruicheng,Diao Peisong and Geng Duanyang.Mechanical and ecological tillage pattern improving soil quality and crop yields[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering,2015,31(7):33-38.
Authors:Zhang Yinping  Du Ruicheng  Diao Peisong and Geng Duanyang
Institution:Department of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China,Department of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China,Department of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China and Department of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China
Abstract:Abstract: Tillage was the key factor affecting soil quality, and plowing, rotary tillage and subsoiling etc. were the important links of tillage pattern. Years of plowing, trying to make the soil crushing and creating a good growth environment were the essence of traditional farming in China. But excessive tillage caused the damage to the vegetation, made the soil lose protection, caused soil erosion, dust wreaking havoc and fertility decline in the end. However, long-term no tillage was also inconducive to the sustainable high yield of crops. In order to solve this problem, through comprehensive consideration, the advantages of different tillage patterns were took and combined reasonably. Then a rotational period of mechanical and ecological tillage pattern was established in wheat/corn double-cropping system and compared with the patterns of years of plowing and years of no tillage. The mechanical and ecological tillage pattern was set as Treatment W, the years of plowing pattern was Treatment F, and the years of no tillage pattern was Treatment N. The rotational period was set to be 5 years. For Treatment W, different agricultural machines were combined suitably for moderate tillage on soil in the 5 years. In the first year, the soil was ploughed with the splintery straw mulch on the soil after harvesting corn, and no tillage the next year; in the third and the fourth year subsoil interleaved, and in the last year no tillage as well. For Treatment F the soil was ploughed every year after harvesting corn and no tillage for Treatment N. In order to study the effects of different patterns on soil and yield, the soils of 0-10, >10-20, >20-30 cm layer were collected and tested for soil organic content, moisture content and bulk density, and yields of wheat and corn were recorded as well every year in the period for all treatments. Then the results were compared. The comparison results showed as follows: in the period of five-year test, Treatment W effectively improved soil organic content at all 3 layers, and the largest improvement was 0.2% at 0-10 cm soil layer; Treatment N also significantly improved soil organic content at 0-10 cm soil layer at the first 3 years, but reduced at the last 2 years; however, soil organic content was reduced for Treatment F at 0-10 cm layer, yet that at >20-30 cm soil layer was significantly improved at the first 3 years, and then reduced at the last 2 years. The soil moisture contents from the highest to the lowest were Treatment W, Treatment N and Treatment F, and the difference between Treatment W and the two other treatments was more significant (P<0.05) with the increasing of the year. At 0-10 cm soil layer, the soil bulk densities of Treatment W and N were significantly lower than Treatment F at 5% level. The yields of Treatment W and N were significantly higher than Treatment F, and the order from the highest to the lowest was Treatment W, Treatment N and Treatment F; the difference was most significant in 2014, wheat yields of Treatment W was 30.8% higher than Treatment F and 22.5% than Treatment N, and yields of corn was 28.4% higher than Treatment F and 20.9% than Treatment N.
Keywords:crops  mechanization  soil moisture  ecologically enrich soil  soil organic  bulk density  yields
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