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山东省水稻免耕旱直播试验及可行性分析
引用本文:张银平,杜瑞成,刁培松,杨善东.山东省水稻免耕旱直播试验及可行性分析[J].农业工程学报,2016,32(12):24-30.
作者姓名:张银平  杜瑞成  刁培松  杨善东
作者单位:山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院,淄博,255049
基金项目:山东省农机装备研发创新项目(NJGG201502)
摘    要:为探究水稻免耕旱直播在山东省的适应性,使用2BDMM-8稻麦宽苗带灭茬播种机,在涛雒稻麦轮作两熟区和高青春季稻一熟区分别进行了免耕旱直播试验,以机械育苗插秧为对照,分析免耕旱直播对水稻株高、分蘖情况的影响,对不同种植方式下的水稻产量及产量构成因素、生产成本等进行统计分析.结果表明:水稻免耕旱直播与机械育苗插秧相比,生育期短,生长速度快,株高无显著差异;分蘖率分别为57%和58%,比插秧对照低6.5%和10.4%;产量分别为8970和10020 kg/hm2,与插秧对照无显著差异(P<0.05),验证了水稻免耕旱直播在山东常规稻种植区基本可行.通过成本比较,免耕旱直播成本比插秧对照分别节约2472和3312元/hm2,说明免耕旱直播在山东地区有很好的推广前景.该研究为山东常规稻种植区免耕旱直播提供了参考.

关 键 词:农作物  机械化  试验  水稻  免耕  旱直播  产量  成本
收稿时间:2016/2/19 0:00:00
修稿时间:2016/3/10 0:00:00

Experiment of no-tillage and drought direct sowing rice and feasibility analysis in Shandong Province
Zhang Yinping,Du Ruicheng,Diao Peisong and Yang Shandong.Experiment of no-tillage and drought direct sowing rice and feasibility analysis in Shandong Province[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering,2016,32(12):24-30.
Authors:Zhang Yinping  Du Ruicheng  Diao Peisong and Yang Shandong
Institution:College of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China,College of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China,College of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China and College of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China
Abstract:Abstract: To study the adaptability of the rice planting pattern of no-tillage and drought direct sowing in Shandong Province, the experiments were carried out in 2 different places Taoluo and Gaoqing. Taoluo is the wheat-rice double cropping area and Gaoqing is the single cropping area. In these 2 areas, rice was planted by a planter with wide seedlings and stubble cleaning device, and at the same time, the mechanical transplanting was used for the comparison. In the process of experiments, the influences of different patterns on the rice height and tillering situation were analyzed, and the rice yield and its components were compared to the mechanical transplanting as well. In addition, the costs of different patterns were compared. The result showed that the rice growth period of no-tillage and drought direct sowing was shorter than mechanical transplanting, but the growing speed was higher. At the early stage of rice growth period, the rice height of no-tillage and drought direct sowing was lower than mechanical transplanting and had significant difference, but no difference existed in the late stage. The rice tillering rates of no-tillage and drought direct sowing were respectively 57% and 58% in Taoluo and Gaoqing, 6.5% and 10.4% lower than mechanical transplanting, respectively. The yields in Taoluo and Gaoqing were respectively 8 970 and 10 020 kg/hm2 under the no-tillage and drought direct sowing, 50 and 30 kg/hm2 lower than mechanical transplanting respectively, but there was no significant difference between them. In the components of yield, the panicle length, seed setting rate, grain number per panicle and one thousand grain weight were lower than mechanical transplanting, but had no significant difference except grain number per panicle. The number of valid panicles was much more than mechanical transplanting, which guaranteed yield, and had significant difference (P<0.05). Through the comparison, the cost of no-tillage and drought direct sowing was 2 427 and 3 312 yuan/hm2 lower than mechanical transplanting in Taoluo and Gaoqing respectively, and significant difference existed between the 2 different planting patterns. In Taoluo, 2 kinds of crops are planted in a year, and the straw of preceding crop must be returned to the soil and rotary cultivation must be carried out, which cost respectively about 600 and 1 200 yuan/hm2. At the same time, the process of seeding raising and transplanting are complicated, it costs 1 497 and 780 yuan/hm2 in the conventional pattern of transplanting. In Gaoqing, one crop is planted in a year, it costs 1 200 yuan/hm2 for winter-cultivation, and costs as the same as Taoluo for seeding raising and transplanting. But all these mentioned did not be needed in the pattern of no-tillage and drought direct sowing, and the stubble-cleaning, cultivation, fertilization and planting were completed at one time, which made the rice planting much simpler. Through the experiment, it is proved that rice no-tillage and drought direct sowing is feasible in the conventional rice planting area of Shandong Province. If it is available for hybrid rice in Shandong Province remains to be further verified, but we can conclude that if the seeding time and rate are appropriate, it would be possible.
Keywords:crops  mechanization  experiments  rice  no-tillage  drought direct sowing  yield  costs
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