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仿生玉米掰穗装置掰穗速度与功耗试验
引用本文:张丽萍,李其昀.仿生玉米掰穗装置掰穗速度与功耗试验[J].农业工程学报,2015,31(19):9-14.
作者姓名:张丽萍  李其昀
作者单位:山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院,淄博 255000,山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院,淄博 255000
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项(200903059-0402);山东省科技发展计划项目(2010GNC10965);山东省自然科学基金专项(ZR2009DL012);山东省自然科学基金(2010ZRE04018)
摘    要:目前国内外采用的玉米摘穗装置均存在着籽粒破损率高、含杂率高和功率消耗大等问题,为解决上述问题,该文采用模仿人工收获玉米果穗的方式,设计了仿生玉米掰穗装置。首先进行拉力测试试验,分别在静态与动态2种条件下对传统摘穗方式与仿生掰穗方式收获玉米果穗所需力进行测量,验证仿生掰穗方式可行性;然后设计仿生玉米掰穗装置试验台并进行掰穗速度与功率消耗的综合试验,得到掰穗手速度与纯功率消耗的关系。试验表明:静态传统摘穗方式与仿生掰穗方式收获玉米果穗平均所需力分别为435和41.4 N。动态传统摘穗方式与仿生掰穗方式收获果穗平均所需力分别202.5和20.7 N。仿生掰穗比传统摘穗所需力大大减少。与传统玉米收获装置相比(正常工作速度1.2 m/s),该装置功率消耗低,约为36 W,小于传统一对摘穗辊消耗的纯功率(240 W)。该研究为玉米收获机摘穗部件的改进提供了参考。

关 键 词:农业机械  仿生  农作物  玉米掰穗  功率  掰穗速度
收稿时间:6/8/2015 12:00:00 AM
修稿时间:2015/9/17 0:00:00

Speed of bionic breaking corn ear hand and experiment on power consumption
Zhang Liping and Li Qiyun.Speed of bionic breaking corn ear hand and experiment on power consumption[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering,2015,31(19):9-14.
Authors:Zhang Liping and Li Qiyun
Institution:School Agricultural and Food Engineering Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China and School Agricultural and Food Engineering Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China
Abstract:Abstract: Corn has already been the first major grain crop in China and its planting area is growing quickly. Compared to the wheat mechanical harvesting, corn mechanical harvesting level is very low. For traditional corn harvesting machine, snapping device most snaps corn ear. It makes extrusion or nibbling on the corn ear caused by snapping roller, leading to the high loss rate. It hinders the development of mechanization. As the subsidies on agriculture are generous in recent years, corn harvesters have been developed rapidly. But there are also many problems that can't be solved in current corn harvesters, such as high grain damage rate, high impurity rate and high power consumption. So a new way to pick up corn is needed urgently. In order to solve these current problems, our research team designs the bionic device of breaking corn ears. This design's inspiration is from artificially picking up corn ears; people pick up corn ears from top to bottom, and this way does not have the problem of hurting corn ears, so we break through the traditional way and use a new way to design this device. The working principle of this device is that power is provided by the speed regulating motor. After driving sprocket drives the power, the left driving wheel for breaking ears rotates clockwise and the right driving wheel for breaking ears rotates counterclockwise. The breaking ear hands move from the top to the bottom in the breaking ears space, which does not allow the corn ears to cross the space, and when the hands touch the corn ear, they will pick up it. Many tests have already been done to prove the feasibility of the device. First we do the single-factor tests, and we test the force required by picking up corn ears in the traditional way and the bionic way respectively under the static and dynamic condition. In traditional way we fix the corn on the equipment along the direction of plant growth, and in bionic way we fix the corn on the equipment against the direction of plant growth; under static condition we provide tension slowly, under dynamic condition we provide tension suddenly, we analyze the data and get the relationship between them; and then we do the power consumption test that is used by bionic device of breaking corn ears. We do the test in laboratory in which the device can't move but corn plants move; we design a device system and fix the corn plants in the track that can be driven by motor, and the traveling speed is set as 1.0 m/s. The speed of breaking corn ears hand is different, and the ko camera is used to record the test process and the power meter is used to record the power consumption. Finally we get the relationship between the speed of breaking corn ears hand and the pure power consumption. Tests show that the force required in the bionic way is significantly reduced, which is only one tenth of the traditional way, and this is decided by physiological characteristics of corn; compared with the current corn harvesters with snapping rollers or snapping boards, this device does not hurt corn ears and consumes less power, which is only one sixth of the snapping rollers' power consumption; and the relationship between the pure power consumption and speed of breaking corn ears hand is quadratic function.
Keywords:agriculture machinery  bionics  crops  breaking ear corn  power  speed of breaking ear hand
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