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上拉茎掰穗式玉米收获台架试验与分析
引用本文:程修沛,贾晓东,陈美舟,李其昀.上拉茎掰穗式玉米收获台架试验与分析[J].农业工程学报,2016,32(22):50-55.
作者姓名:程修沛  贾晓东  陈美舟  李其昀
作者单位:1. 山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院,淄博,255000;2. 山东建筑大学理学院,济南,250000
基金项目:农业科技成果转化资金项目(2014);山东省重点研发计划项目(2015GGX101003)。
摘    要:针对现有摘穗装置存在的果穗啃伤、籽粒损失严重等问题,该文采用了自上而下的掰穗原理,搭建了上拉茎掰穗式玉米收获试验台,进行了摘穗辊转速、两摘穗辊间隙和摘穗辊与水平面夹角对玉米籽粒损失的影响试验;试验中采用高速摄像系统对玉米摘穗过程进行快速捕捉,有助于后期的综合分析。通过单因素试验和方差分析表明,玉米摘穗辊转速对玉米籽粒损失率有显著的影响,在500~1000 r/min变化范围内,玉米籽粒损失率的变化先降低再升高,700 r/min时损失最小,籽粒损失范围0.22%~0.39%;两摘穗辊间隙在4~12 mm范围内,玉米籽粒损失总体呈下降趋势,间隙为10 mm时损失最小,玉米籽粒平均损失率0.33%,两摘穗辊间隙对玉米籽粒损失率有显著的影响;摘穗辊与水平面夹角对玉米籽粒损失影响不明显。试验结果表明,采用自上而下的摘穗方式能够有效的降低传统摘穗装置果穗啃伤、籽粒损失严重等问题,实现低损伤摘穗。该研究丰富了玉米摘穗理论,为玉米收获机型的研发提供了参考。

关 键 词:农业机械  农作物  试验  上拉茎摘穗装置  玉米  籽粒损失  单因素试验  方差分析
收稿时间:2016/4/24 0:00:00
修稿时间:2016/10/24 0:00:00

Experiment and analysis on test device of corn ear picking by pulling stalk upwards
Cheng Xiupei,Jia Xiaodong,Chen Meizhou and Li Qiyun.Experiment and analysis on test device of corn ear picking by pulling stalk upwards[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering,2016,32(22):50-55.
Authors:Cheng Xiupei  Jia Xiaodong  Chen Meizhou and Li Qiyun
Institution:1. School of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China;,2. College of Science, Shandong Jianzhu University, Jinan 250000, China;,1. School of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China; and 1. School of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, China;
Abstract:Abstract: In recent years, corn has become the first major crop in place of wheat and rice, which has an important influence on the national life with its production increasing. Corn snapping device is a main component of corn harvesting machine, and has an important effect on the quality of corn harvest. Currently, according to the way of working, there are 2 types of snapping devices: snapping rolls and plate type. The existing snapping device is easy to cause the corn ear nibbling and grain loss. In order to solve the above problems, the test device of corn ear picking by pulling stack upwards was studied, the principle of which was imitating artificial snapping action, and pulling stalk upwards to pick corn. It mainly included corn ear picking device, clamping feeding device, corn roots cutting device, high-speed photography and computer data acquisition system. When corn plant was fed to the ear picking device by the clamping feeding device, the corn stalks were cut off through the corn roots cutting device, then the snapping rollers pulled up the corn stalks and the corn ear encountered the snapping rollers, and finally the corn ear was bent and broken off. In the process of picking corn ears, the force of stalk was a resultant force of the force of pick ear buckle and the force along spiral line, which made stalk move backward and upward. This paper also analyzed the force relationship of corn ear. When the corn ear encountered the snapping rollers, the snapping rollers only overcame connection force and connection torque to bend and break off the corn ear. The test was done at the laboratory of agricultural machinery. The grain moisture content was 21%, and the grain loss rate was taken as the index to estimate the performance of the harvesting device. Through the single factor experiment, the impacts of the roll''s rotational speed, the roll''s interval and the angle between roll and horizontal surface on the rate of grain loss were analyzed. The process of harvesting was captured through the high-speed photography, which was helpful to the comprehensive analysis in the late period. Through the single factor experiment and the analysis of variance, it was found that the grain loss rate reduced at first and then increased gradually, when the rotational speed was changed in 6 levels of 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 r/min in turn and other factors were changeless. The rotational speed had significant effect on the grain loss by the analysis of variance. The average grain loss rate was the least (0.293%) when the rotational speed was 700 r/min. When the roll''s interval was selected to 5 levels including 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mm in turn, the grain loss rate was decreasing gradually in general. The grain loss rate was the least when the roll''s interval was 10 mm, which was 0.33%. But, if the interval was too large, it had some problems such as the grasping ability was weakened and the corn head was gripped. The effect of the angle between roll and horizontal surface on the grain loss rate was not obvious, which was set at 5 levels of 0°, 10°, 20°, 30° and 40°, and the grain loss rate was 0.28%-0.31%. It was found that corn ear picking by pulling stalk upwards had good performance, and the corn grain loss rate was less than the national industry standard (2%) and also less than the traditional snapping roller. This way of picking corn can improve the corn grain quality and reduce the grain loss, and provide a thought for corn harvesting.
Keywords:agricultural machinery  crops  experiments  device of corn ear picking by pulling stalk upwards  corn  grain loss  single-factor test  variance analysis
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