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正反转组合式水稻宽苗带灭茬播种机设计与试验
引用本文:张银平,杜瑞成,刁培松,杨善东,王振伟.正反转组合式水稻宽苗带灭茬播种机设计与试验[J].农业工程学报,2017,33(3):7-13.
作者姓名:张银平  杜瑞成  刁培松  杨善东  王振伟
作者单位:1. 山东理工大学农业工程与食品科学学院,淄博,255049;2. 农业部南京农业机械化研究所,南京,210014
基金项目:山东省农机装备研发创新项目(NJGG201502)
摘    要:针对稻麦两茬轮作区,小麦收获时间短、水稻插秧费时费力、直播整地要求高的问题,利用反转灭茬技术和主动防拥堵技术,同时借鉴小麦宽幅精播技术,设计了一种正反转组合式水稻宽苗带灭茬播种机,一次完成旋耕、灭茬、防堵、深施肥、宽苗带播种、覆土和镇压功能.在稻麦两熟区进行了试验,结果表明,反转旋耕装置能很好的灭茬,正转清草装置能有效防堵,在正反旋耕的配合作用下,种床土壤细碎,播种覆土均匀,播种深度和施肥深度变异系数分别为4.58%和2.40%,种肥垂直间距变异系数为4.72%;平均苗带宽度为138.4 mm,与理论设计宽度差异不显著;不同苗带宽度上种子分布有差异但不显著,符合设计要求;苗带宽度对水稻生长有影响,苗带两侧有效分蘖和成穗率显著高于苗带中间(P<0.05);机具的通过性满足农艺要求.

关 键 词:农业机械  设计  作物  反转  灭茬  防堵  宽苗带  水稻
收稿时间:2016/7/19 0:00:00
修稿时间:2016/11/21 0:00:00

Design and experiment of wide band seeding rice seeder with reversed stubble cleaning and anti-blocking
Zhang Yinping,Du Ruicheng,Diao Peisong,Yang Shandong,Wang Zhenwei.Design and experiment of wide band seeding rice seeder with reversed stubble cleaning and anti-blocking[J].Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering,2017,33(3):7-13.
Authors:Zhang Yinping  Du Ruicheng  Diao Peisong  Yang Shandong  Wang Zhenwei
Institution:1. College of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China;,1. College of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China;,1. College of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China;,1. College of Agricultural Engineering and Food Science, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049, China; and 2. Nanjing Research Institute for Agricultural Mechanization, Ministry of Agriculture, Nanjing 210014;
Abstract:Abstract: There are some serious problems in the rice planting, such as wasting lots of time for rice seedlings transplantation, and high demands of direct planting in rice-wheat planting area. In order to solve these problems, the techniques of reversed stubble cleaning and active anti-blocking, along with the technique of wide band and precision seeding were used in a rice direct seeder. The designed direct seeder included the following parts: reversed stubble cleaning device, active ant-blocking device and wide band seeding device, and so on. It could implement the following function at one time: rotary tillage, stubble cleaning, anti-blocking, furrow opening, deep fertilizing, wide seeding, active covering soil and compacting. The way seeds covered by soil was active, in which soil was thrown in reversed rotary tillage, so the distance between reverse stubble cleaning device and seeding device was an important factor. It would influence the soil covering performance. The soil throwing in the reversed rotary tillage was analyzed, and the soil movement curve was drawn. Then the ensemble method was used to test the soil throwing performance. The results showed that the soil throwing distance ranged from 650 to 870 mm under the radius of 245 mm and the rotating speed of 320 r/min. Considering both the soil covering performance and the length of the rice seeder, the optimal distance between the reverse stubble cleaning device and the forward anti-blocking device was 738 mm, which was gotten by soil throwing test. At the same time, a wide band seeding device was designed according to the technique used in wheat wide band planting proposed by the academician Yu Songlie. The theoretical width of the seeding device was designed as 140 mm and the triangular bulge was designed in the middle which divided the width 140 mm into 3 sections i.e. 35, 70 and 35 mm. In order to obtain the best performance of separating seeds evenly, the seed arrangement test was carried out, and 2 influence factors, i.e. the angle and the middle bulge height of the seeding device, were designed in different values. Through the test of 2 factors and 3 levels, the optimum angle and bulge height were designed as 40° and 4 mm, respectively, which could arrange seeds smoothly and separate seeds evenly. At last the field experiments were carried out in rice-wheat planting area, and the results showed that stubble cleaning could be well finished by the reversed stubble cleaning device and the congestion could be well solved by the active anti-blocking device. With the reversed and forward rotary tillage, soil of seedbed was finely divided and soil covering was uniform. The variation coefficients of sowing depth and fertilizing depth were 4.58% and 2.40% respectively, and the variation coefficient of the distance between seed and fertilizer was 4.72%, which met the national standard. The average seeding band width was 138.4 mm with no significant difference with the theoretical width designed. In the different width of the seeding band, the number of seeds was different, but the difference was not significant , which met the demand of design. The growing states of crops showed that the width of seeding band had influence on the rice growing, and the effective tillering and the percentage of earbearing tiller on the sides of the seedling band were higher than that in the middle (P<0.05). The passing ability of this seeder satisfied the agronomic requirements.
Keywords:agricultural machinery    design  crops  reverse rotary  stubble cleaning  ant-blocking  wide band seeding  rice
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