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The aim of the study was to establish normal echocardiographic values of healthy Standardbred trotters not published previously. Twenty-three clinically normal horses weighing between 350 and 490 kg were examined in the same manner: first a thorough physical and then detailed echocardiographic examination were performed. Standardised two-dimensional (2D) and guided M-mode echocardiographic imaging techniques were used to measure interventricular septal thickness (IVS), left ventricular internal diameter (LVID), left ventricular wall thickness (LVW), left atrial internal diameter (LAID) in end-systole (s) and end-diastole (d) and aortic diameter (AOD) in end-diastole. Mean, range and standard deviation of the different parameters were calculated. The mean values (in centimetres) were as follow (2D/M-mode): IVSs: 4.6/4.7; IVSd: 3.1/3.0; LVIDs: 7.0/7.0; LVIDd: 10.7/10.7; LVWs: 3.9/3.9; LVWd: 2.7/2.7; LAIDs: 10.4/-; LAIDd: 11.3/-; AODd: 7.2/-. Results of two-dimensional and M-mode measurements were compared to each other and to normal values obtained from other breeds.  相似文献
2.

Background

Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) is a significant gastrointestinal disease in pigs. It is considered a multifactorial disease associated with proliferation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the intestinal tract of affected pigs. The aim of this study was to analyse risk factors related to the occurrence of PWD on Finnish piglet producing farms.

Methods

The data of a follow-up study of 73 conventional piglet producing farms was used in the case-control study. The selection of the 41 PWD case and 28 control farms was based on the use of antimicrobials for treating diarrhoea in weaned pigs and the answers related to the occurrence of diarrhoea after weaning in the questionnaire. Four intermediate farms were excluded from the statistical analysis.Altogether 39 factors related to herd characteristics, weaner pig management and pig health were studied. The median number of sows was 59.0 (IQR = 44.0; 74.5) and 52.5 (IQR = 36.8; 61.5) on the case and the control farms, respectively.The significances of the univariable associations between the explanatory variables and the outcome variable were tested, and in the multivariate analysis quasibinomial generalized linear models were applied.

Results

An increased risk of PWD was associated with the regimen of twice a day feeding and feed restriction after weaning (P = 0.02; compared to feeding three or more meals a day or the use of ad libitum feeding) and with a higher number of sows on the farm (P = 0.02; risk increasing with increasing number of sows). Automatic temperature control was associated with a decreased risk of PWD (P = 0.03; compared to manual temperature control).

Conclusion

Twice a day feeding of newly-weaned pigs should be avoided if the amount of feed given is restricted. Variation in ambient temperature should be minimized in housing of newly-weaned pigs and this can be achieved by using automatic temperature control. With increasing number of sows in the herds the risk of PWD increases and more attention should be paid to prevention of post-weaning diarrhoea.  相似文献
3.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in tissue destruction in allergic airway diseases. We studied the ability of various allergenic substances to directly activate recombinant 92kDa proMMP-9. The substances included hay dust suspension (HDS) and its components (supernatant, particulate matter and wash fluid of particulate matter), storage mite extract and two Aspergillus fumigatus extracts. The allergen suspensions were incubated in vitro with proMMP-9. After incubation the conversion of proMMP-9 to 10kDa lower active forms were studied using gelatin zymography and Western immunoblot quantified by computerized densitometry. All studied allergens except HDS significantly and efficiently activated proMMP-9 as compared to a negative control. At the concentrations employed, the most potent activators were A. fumigatus extracts and mite suspension. The greater potency of mite and fungi as proMMP-9 activators suggests that these allergens may be more damaging to airways even at low concentrations.  相似文献
4.
Inflammation causes epithelial cell sloughing and basement membrane (BM) exposure in canine pulmonary eosinophilia (PE), leading to degradation of the epithelial cell attachment component, laminin-5 gamma2-chain, into small molecular weight fragments. The subsidence of inflammation after treatment down-regulates degradation. Laminin-5 gamma2-chain levels and molecular forms in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analysed semiquantitatively by Western immunoblotting to compare PE affected (n=20) and healthy dogs (n=16) as well as PE dogs (n=6) before and after corticosteroid treatment. PE dogs expressed significantly elevated levels of total (P<0.01), 36 kDa (P<0.05) and 53 kDa (P<0.05) laminin-5 gamma2-fragments. The 36 Da fragment decreased significantly (P<0.05) after treatment. The laminin-5 gamma2-chain degradation products may be linked to epithelial cell sloughing and BM exposure or healing.  相似文献
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