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1.
To differentiate pigs infected with porcine parvovirus (PPV) from those vaccinated with inactivated whole-virus vaccine, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on detection of a nonstructural polyprotein 1 (NS1) was developed. A threshold of 0.23 optical density units was established and the assayhad high specificity (100), sensitivity (88), accuracy (90) and positive predictive value (100) using haemagglutination inhibition as the standard method. A reproducibility test revealed that the coefficients of variation of sera within-plates and between-run were less than 10%. The assayshowed no cross-reactivitywith antibodies to porcine reproductive respiratorysyndrome virus, pseudorabies virus, foot and mouth disease virus, Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Toxoplasma or Chlamydia. Sera obtained from pigs infected with PPV reacted with recombinant NS1 protein in the ELISA. Sera from pigs vaccinated with inactivated whole virus did not recognize this protein in the ELISA. In contrast, antibodies against PPV whole virus were present in both PPV-infected and vaccinated animals. Serum conversion against NS1 was first detected 10 days after infection and NS1-specific antibodies were detectable up to half a year post infection. In conclusion, the PPV-NS1 ELISA can differentiate PPV-infected versus inactivated PPV-vaccinated pigs and could be applied in disease diagnosis and surveillance.  相似文献
2.
畜产品安全与毒害物质残留研究进展   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
论述了畜产品安全及其目前畜产品中的兽药、激素、重金属、生物毒素、农药、微生物等毒害物质的残留,并对畜产品安全现状及存在的问题进行了分析。  相似文献
3.
畜产品安全与毒害物质残留研究进展   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
论述了畜产品安全及其目前畜产品中的兽药、激素、重金属、生物毒素、农药、微生物等毒害物质的残留,并对畜产品安全现状及存在的问题进行了分析。  相似文献
4.
Weng YB  Hu YJ  Li Y  Li BS  Lin RQ  Xie DH  Gasser RB  Zhu XQ 《Veterinary parasitology》2005,127(3-4):333-336
The prevalence of intestinal parasites was investigated in intensive pig farms in Guangdong Province, China between July 2000 and July 2002. Faecal samples from 3636 pigs (both sexes and five age groups) from 38 representative intensive pig farms employing different parasite control strategies were examined for the presence of helminth ova and protozoan oocysts, cysts and/or trophozoites using standard techniques. Of the 3636 pigs sampled, 209 (5.7%) were infected with Trichuris suis, 189 (5.2%) with Ascaris, 91 (2.5%) with Oesophagostomum spp., 905 (24.9%) with coccidia (Eimeria spp. and/or Isospora suis) and 1716 (47.2%) with Balantidium coli. These infected pigs were mainly from farms without a strategic anti-parasite treatment regime. Concurrent infection of multiple parasites was common, and T. suis was the most common nematode infecting breeding, young and mature pigs. The results of the present investigation provide relevant 'base-line' data for assessing the effectiveness of control strategies against intestinal parasitism in intensively raised pigs in Guangdong Province, China.  相似文献
5.
长臂猿克雷伯氏菌病病原鉴定   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
北京动物园一只雄性成年白眉长臂猿因右前肢第二趾有外伤,虽经治疗,但创口愈合不良,长时间暴露创面,感染后出现全身症状,于2005年6月28日死亡。死后剖检,肝脏质脆,肺淤血,右肺实变,并有豆腐渣样物沉着。从死亡动物的心血、肝脏和肺组织分离到纯粹的肺炎克雷伯氏菌。  相似文献
6.
Blood and tissue pharmacokinetics and drug residue profiles of six chemotherapeutants were studied. Ceftriaxone (CEF), intravenously at 50 mg/kg, sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) and sulfaquinoxaline (SQ), orally at 200 mg/kg, and olaquindox (OLA), orally at 50 mg/kg, were administered to young broilers. Penicillin (PEN), intramuscularly at 200 000 U/kg, and albendazole (ALB), orally at 20 mg/kg, were given to rabbits. For each drug, 13–18 groups ( n = 5–10 individuals/group) of the dosed animals were killed at different post-dosing times. Drug and/or metabolite concentrations in plasma, liver, kidney, heart, lung, and muscle tissues were analysed by HPLC procedures. Multi-exponential kinetic models were fitted to the observed tissue concentration-time data by applying a non-linear least-squares regression computer program. Tissue half-life, peak tissue concentration, and time of peak tissue concentration were determined. Half-life of CEF, SMM, SQ, OLA, PEN, ALB, and two metabolites of ALB (sulfoxide and sulfone) in various tissues ranged 0.6–1.4, 4.7–9.0, 4.5–18.9, 1.8–3.1, 0.9–3.0, 3.4–9.6, 5.0–16.1 and 7.4–12.2 h. The times required for CEF, SMM, SQ, OLA, PEN, and ALB residue concentrations to decline to 0.1 μg/g in various tissues ranged from 5.0–11.6. 70.0–110.5. 114.0–179.8, 21.3–30.3,4.1–24.8 and 47.8–84.4 h. Drug kinetic characteristics in tissues differed significantly from those in plasma, and also varied from tissue to tissue. It is necessary, therefore, to evaluate tissue kinetics when designing dosage regimens in tissue infection chemotherapy with these drugs. Knowledge of tissue kinetics is also important in predicting and controlling drug residues in edible tissues of food-producing animals.  相似文献
7.
霉菌毒素与免疫系统   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
某些霉菌毒素对肉鸡免疫系统的影响要比预想的更为严重。密苏里大学的一个研究小组通过在小鸡的饲料中添加不同水平的黄曲霉毒素 B1对此进行了研究。试验结果表明 ,在添加剂量为 2 0 0 μg/kg时 ,注射 E.Coli以及在饲料中添加黄曲霉毒素 B1组肝脏和脾脏中的细菌数比只注射 E.Coli组多。试验鸡在连续饲喂含黄曲霉毒素的饲料 4周后对新城疫灭活疫苗的应答较弱。和未添加组相比 ,添加组免疫细胞对毒素的应答较慢。小剂量添加时 ,没有发现免疫系统明显的损伤 ,由此表明 ,大剂量接触黄曲霉毒素可能会引起免疫系统明显的损伤霉菌毒素与免疫系统…  相似文献
8.
A vaccination trial was conducted to evaluate the potential benefit of Haemonchus contortus gut membrane proteins as vaccine antigens under field conditions in Louisiana. The trial was conducted in the summer of 1996 in a flock of ewes grazing pasture naturally infected with H. contortus. Ewes were randomly assigned to three treatment groups (vaccine, adjuvant only, and saline) and fecal egg counts (FEC, measured as eggs per gram of feces), packed cell volumes (PCV), and antibody levels were monitored fortnightly for 12 weeks. It was shown by FEC that there were large individual variations in susceptibility to H. contortus in both vaccinated and non-vaccinated sheep, a finding which could have masked differences between treatments when analyzed by conventional statistical methods. Based on their egg counts before the period when the vaccination could have had an effect, all ewes were categorized as 'susceptible' or 'relatively resistant'. The significance of differences between FEC, PCV and antibody responses of vaccinated and control sheep were tested separately for the 'susceptible' and 'relatively resistant' category. The 'susceptible' vaccinates shed 65% fewer worm eggs during the period when the vaccine could have had an effect, but the difference was only significant on Week 6 post-vaccination. In these experiments, it was difficult to completely exclude the confounding effect of having 'relatively resistant' sheep in the control group. More studies are needed to further evaluate H11 and H-gal-GP antigens under field conditions.  相似文献
9.
Use of supplementary tryptophan to modify the behavior of pigs   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the short-term use of supplementary Trp on the behavior of grow/finish pigs. Three levels of dietary Trp were used, representing the standard requirement for growth (control), twice (2x), and 4 times (4x) the control amount. In Exp. 1, pigs were fed the diets for 7 d, during which observations were made of their general behavior (time budget), aggression within the group of familiar pigs, and response to a startling auditory stimulus. Behavior effects were evident during the period of supplementation for both the 2x and 4x diets. During the treatment period, pigs fed supplemental Trp spent more time lying (P = 0.04) and less time eating (P = 0.05) than pigs fed the control diet. Although the response of the animals to the startling stimulus was to become alert and stand, similar behavioral effects caused by supplemental Trp also were evident after the startling stimulus (P < 0.01). Based on these observations, the subsequent studies retained the same dietary levels of Trp and incorporated a 3-d feeding of diets before behavior testing. In Exp. 2, pigs were fed the experimental diets for 3 d before being regrouped with unfamiliar pigs on the same diet. Subsequent aggression was affected by Trp supplementation, in that high levels of dietary Trp decreased the total duration of fighting by approximately 50% (P = 0.03). Supplemental Trp had no effect on the number of fights, and there were no differences between the 2 levels of supplemental Trp on any behavior. In Exp. 3, pigs were exposed to specific handling tests on the farm and meat quality assessments after being fed the experimental diets for 3 d. There were no differences among dietary treatments for any of the meat quality characteristic variables measured. The only behavioral or physiological difference observed among the treatments was a slower movement of pigs fed the 4x Trp treatment than control or 2x Trp-fed pigs in a minimal-forced situation (P = 0.04). Response to confinement on a scale, an electric prod, and movement in general did not differ among treatments. High levels of Trp may result in animals avoiding stressful situations if possible, but they seem to have no effect on responses to stressors that animals may experience in a forced situation.  相似文献
10.
A total of 50 weaning pigs (16 d of age; 4.72 +/- 0.23 kg of BW) were selected to investigate the effect of dietary chito-oligosaccharide (COS) supplementation on growth performance, fecal shedding of Escherichia coli and Lactobacillus, apparent digestibility, and small intestinal morphology. Pigs housed in individual metabolic cages were assigned randomly to 5 treatments (n = 10), including 1 basal diet (control), 3 diets with COS supplementation (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg), and 1 diet with chlortetracycline (CTC) supplementation (80 mg/kg). Fresh fecal samples were collected to evaluate shedding of E. coli and Lactobacillus on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 postweaning. Fresh fecal samples collected from each cage from d 19 to 21 were stored frozen for determination of apparent total tract digestibility. On d 21, all pigs were killed to collect the middle sections of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum for determination of mucosa morphology. Supplementation of COS at 100 and 200 mg/kg and supplementation of CTC improved (P < 0.05) overall ADG, ADFI, and G:F in comparison with the control. Supplementation of COS at 200 mg/kg as well as supplementation of CTC increased (P < 0.05) apparent total tract digestibility of DM, GE, CP, crude fat, Ca, and P, whereas COS at 100 mg/kg increased (P < 0.05) the digestibility of DM, Ca, and P in comparison with the control diet. Pigs receiving diets supplemented with COS or CTC had a decreased (P < 0.05) incidence of diarrhea and decreased diarrhea scores compared with control pigs. Fecal samples from pigs receiving diets supplemented with COS had greater (P < 0.05) Lactobacillus counts than those from control pigs and pigs receiving diets supplemented with CTC on d 14 and 21. However, supplementation of COS at 200 mg/kg and supplementation of CTC decreased (P < 0.05) E. coli counts in the feces on d 21 compared with the control diet. Dietary supplementation of COS at 200 mg/kg and of CTC increased (P < 0.05) the villus height and villus:crypt ratio at the ileum and jejunum, and COS at 100 mg/kg also increased (P < 0.05) the villus height in the ileum compared with the control diet. The current results indicated that dietary supplementation of COS at 100 and 200 mg/kg enhanced growth performance by increasing apparent digestibility, decreasing the incidence of diarrhea, and improving small intestinal morphology.  相似文献
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