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1.
在分析棉花品种抗蚜性的生化机制的基础上,根据棉蚜与棉花的种间互作关系,研究了不同品种类型的棉苗因棉蚜为害而引起的生理应激反应及由此对抗蚜性表现及棉蚜种群数量消长所产生的影响。研究发现棉株在棉蚜为害条件下,体内抗蚜物质如单宁,脯氨酸和可溶性糖含量较大幅度上升,且其增长幅度,扰蚜品种明显高于感蚜品种,同时叶片颜色明显加深。讨论分析了这种生理反应即诱导抗蚜性对棉蚜种群动态可能产生的调节作用。  相似文献
2.
通过测定灰飞虱在12个不同类型水稻品种上的取食选择性和稻株的含水量、可溶性糖含量、蛋白质含量及粗纤维含量,激光共聚焦显微镜观察稻叶片和茎杆的结构及硅化细胞分布,从养分组成和显微结构两个方面研究灰飞虱对寄主的选择性及其影响因子.结果表明:在植株的养分组成中,对灰飞虱取食选择性起决定性作用的是粗纤维含量,它与虫口密度显著负相关,相关系数达-0.96;而蛋白质含量和含水量均与虫口密度显著正相关,相关系数分别为0.79和0.89,植株可溶性糖含量对灰飞虱取食选择性影响不显著.在显微结构方面,植株硅化细胞体积和密度大、叶脉间距小、叶脉宽的水稻品种对灰飞虱的非选择性强.  相似文献
3.
转基因抗虫玉米环境安全性及我国应用前景   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
转基因抗虫玉米在生产上应用对于促进玉米增产、保障国家粮食安全具有巨大潜力。种植转基因玉米的环境安全性是公众对于应用这一生物技术产品最为关心的问题。本文从基因漂移、对玉米田节肢动物多样性的影响、靶标害虫的抗性及其治理策略和转基因抗虫玉米研发应用现状及其经济效益等方面对转基因抗虫玉米的生态影响研究进行了回顾,分析了种植转基因抗虫玉米的潜在生态风险,展望了我国转基因抗虫玉米的应用前景。  相似文献
4.
植物蛋白酶抑制剂抗虫基因工程研究进展   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:10  
蛋白酶抑制剂抗虫基因工程为提高植物的抗虫能力提供了一种新的策略。与其它来源的抗虫蛋白相比,植物蛋白酶抑制剂有很多独特的优点。蛋白酶抑制剂的抗虫机理尚不完全清楚,影响其抗虫效果的因素也很多。文中列举分析了PI抗虫作用的机理以及目前研究的新进展,提出植物蛋白酶抑制剂抗虫基因工程中存在的问题和进一步解决的办法。  相似文献
5.
BACKGROUND: Transgenic crops that produce insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) were first commercialised in 1996. The risk that pests have the potential to evolve resistance to Bt toxins is one of the most serious challenges to this technology. Gene stacking, pyramiding two Bt genes into one variety, is considered to be an effective insect resistance management (IRM) strategy. In this study, insect‐resistant rice expressing two Bt genes was developed by sexual crossing, and then characterised. RESULTS: Homozygous rice lines of two pyramided Bt genes were obtained in the F3 generation. Quantification of Bt toxin showed that protein concentrations of Cry1Ab, Cry1Ac and Cry2A in the two‐gene lines were comparable with their single‐gene parents, while the expression of cry1C gene decreased after gene stacking. Four two‐gene lines showed higher activity to striped stem borer (Chilo suppressalis Walker) than parental lines in the laboratory bioassay. All pyramided lines and their hybrids exhibited excellent efficacy against stemborers and leaffolders in field evaluation, while most pyramided lines had no significant differences from original variety in yield under spraying of insecticide. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that the two‐gene lines have commercial potential and could serve as a valuable IRM strategy. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry  相似文献
6.
为明确Bt基因在水稻杂交转育过程中抗虫作用的稳定性,以分别转入cry1Ccry2A基因的抗虫水稻品系T1C-19和T2A-1为供体亲本,与10个恢复系杂交并回交,筛选BC1F3代转基因纯合株系,用ELISA法测定水稻叶片和茎秆中Bt蛋白含量。结果表明,4个转cry1C株系和5个转cry2A株系叶片和茎秆的蛋白含量显著低于亲本,且降低了16.62%~62.03%;相同遗传背景下,叶片和茎秆中的Bt蛋白含量之间呈显著正相关;在室内转cry1C株系和转cry2A株系上二化螟幼虫的校正死亡率分别为62.50%~95.83%和37.50%~83.33%,其中在cry2A株系上的校正死亡率与茎秆中的Cry2A蛋白含量呈极显著正相关;在田间自然发虫条件下,纯合株系的单株卷叶数和枯心率最高仅为3.97和9.37%,受害程度与相应组织中Bt蛋白含量之间存在相关性。表明Bt蛋白含量会受到水稻遗传背景的影响,但杂交后代株系在田间仍能表现出很好的抗性。  相似文献
7.
The spinosyns were introduced in 1997 with the launch of spinosad. Since then, there have been several cases of resistance to spinosad in the field populations of insect pest species that have resulted in reduced efficacy. There have also been a number of studies where spinosad-resistant insect strains were created and characterized in the laboratory. Likewise many studies examining resistance to a variety of other classes of insecticides have included spinosad in the evaluation of their cross-resistance spectrum. Understanding mechanisms of resistance and cross-resistance can provide the basis for developing insecticide resistance management programs, as well as defining the most appropriate tools to address potential resistance issues. This review provides an overview and analysis of resistance and cross-resistance to the spinosyns (spinosad and spinetoram). Although there are more than 30 examples of resistance to the spinosyns, only half of these are related to selection in the field. The majority of these field selected examples occur in either the diamondback moth or western flower thrips. There have also been over 85 studies investigating cross-resistance to the spinosyns. However, in half of these studies spinosad showed no cross-resistance, and in another third of the total studies spinosad cross-resistance was minimal. Therefore, while resistance and cross-resistance to the spinosyns does occur, it is appears to be more limited in impact than might be implied from the large body of literature on the subject.  相似文献
8.
孙艳丽  郑芹 《江西植保》2013,(3):334-337
通过对松突圆蚧不同抗性程度的马尾松未受害针叶和受害针叶的针叶长度、叶鞘长、叶鞘松紧度、含水率、相对含水率和容重的测定,研究发现:马尾松针叶长度与其对松突圆蚧的抗性成反比,马尾松针叶的容重与其对松突圆蚧的抗性成正比,叶鞘长、叶鞘松紧度与抗虫性不相关。  相似文献
9.
随着杀虫剂产品的逐渐增多,按照其作用方式进行分类显得十分重要,不仅有利于新化合物的合成与筛选,而且有助于了解其抗药性以及科学地使用。本文收集了杀虫剂(杀螨剂)共253种,分属19种不同的作用方式和60种不同的化合物类别。  相似文献
10.
本文研究了褐稻虱在7个水稻品种上的生存、发育、繁殖、性比、翅型分化和干物质积累等基础生物学参数。结果表明:与标准感虫品种 TN1相比,在 ASD7上一至四龄若虫生存率较低,但五龄若虫生存率、成虫干重和生殖力等无明显差异;在沪粳抗品种上的结果则完全相反,一至四龄若虫生存率较为相近,而五龄若虫生存率、成虫干重和生殖力等均较低。因此,ASD7和泸粳抗可能存在不同的抗褐稻虱机制。  相似文献
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