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毕氏海莲子和盐角草幼苗对PEG 6000模拟干旱的生理响应   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
以不同浓度PEG 6000模拟干旱处理,研究了盐生植物毕氏海蓬子和盐角草幼苗的抗旱性。结果表明:随着PEG 6000浓度的上升,毕氏海蓬子和盐角草体内主要抗氧化酶SOD,POD,CAT活性总体呈先升后降,盐角草SOD活性呈上升趋势。毕氏海蓬子产生速率高于盐角草,且随着干旱的加剧呈上升趋势。盐角草MDA含量基本趋于稳定,毕氏海蓬子MDA的含量虽低于盐角草,但随着干旱的加剧呈上升趋势。毕氏海蓬子的脯氨酸含量随干旱程度的加剧先上升再下降,盐角草的脯氨酸含量一直上升,两者可溶性蛋白含量变化不大。叶绿素含量总体随干旱递增,叶绿素a/b随干旱程度加剧先略有增加然后大幅度下降。总体来看,盐生植物抗氧化酶活性是水分胁迫的敏感指标,而盐角草耐旱能力比毕氏海蓬子要强。  相似文献
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利用开顶式气室(OTC)研究了高浓度O3对春小麦叶片膜脂过氧化程度、活性氧含量、抗氧化系统的影响。结果表明,随着臭氧浓度的升高,不同生育时期小麦叶片的相对电导率、MDA含量显著上升(P<0.01);穗粒重明显下降(P<0.05);O2-.产生速率和H2O2含量显著增加(P<0.05)。SOD活性、CAT活性、POD活性随生育进程和O3浓度升高而显著下降。而对抗氧化物如类Car含量、ASA含量的影响不显著。臭氧浓度增加,促使小麦叶片膜的伤害,引发了膜脂过氧化作用,产生了过多的活性氧自由基,破坏了抗氧化系统功能,影响了叶片的正常生理代谢。  相似文献
3.
This study investigated whether the increase in wheat resistance to blast, caused by Pyricularia oryzae, potentiated by silicon (Si) is linked to changes in the activity of antioxidative enzymes. Wheat plants (cv. BR 18) were grown in hydroponic culture with either 0 (–Si) or 2 mm (+Si) Si and half of the plants in each group were inoculated with P. oryzae. Blast severity in the +Si plants was 70% lower compared to the −Si plants at 96 h after inoculation (hai). Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione‐S‐transferase (GST) activities were higher in the leaves of the −Si plants compared with the +Si plants at 96 hai. This indicates that other mechanisms may have limited P. oryzae infection in the +Si plants restricting the generation of reactive oxygen species, obviating the need for increased antioxidative enzyme activity. In contrast, glutathione reductase (GR) activity at 96 hai was higher in the +Si plants than in the −Si plants. Although the inoculated plants showed significantly higher concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) than the non‐inoculated plants, lower MDA concentrations were observed in the +Si plants compared with the −Si plants. The lower MDA concentration associated with decreased activities of SOD, CAT, POX, APX and GST, suggest that the amount of reactive oxygen species was lower in the +Si plants. However, GR appears to play a pivotal role in limiting oxidative stress caused by P. oryzae infection in +Si plants.  相似文献
4.
采用以甘肃省境内某地区化肥厂、造纸厂的工业废水以及此两厂的混合废水作溶剂的培养液(分别记作废液1、废液2和废液3)培养黄瓜幼苗,研究了其对黄瓜幼苗的生长及其叶组织中活性氧清除系统的影响。结果发现,(1)培养5 d后,生长在废液1中的幼苗,叶片组织中的几种抗氧化酶除APX的活性显著增加外(P<0.01),CAT、SOD和GR活性均无明显变化(P>0.05)。生长在废液2中的CAT和GR的活性基本未变,APX和SOD的活性分别在P<0.01和P<0.05的水平上增加。在废液3中,CAT和SOD及APX的活性分别在P<0.05和P<0.01的水平上增加,而GR活性降低(P<0.05)。(2)培养13 d后,无论在哪种废水中,黄瓜幼苗的伸长生长和干物质积累及叶片组织中APX、SOD、CAT和GR活性、GSH和ASA含量均明显降低(P<0.05或P<0.01),H2O2、O2、MDA含量和电解质泄漏率明显增加(P<0.05或P<0.01)。结果表明,化肥厂、造纸厂的工业废水以及此两厂的混合废水对黄瓜幼苗叶组织中的抗氧化系统有明显的破环作用,最终影响幼苗的生长。  相似文献
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6.
研究农药百菌清处理前用外源24-表油菜素内酯(24-epibrassinolide ,EBR )预处理对酿酒葡萄品种‘赤霞珠’( Cabernet Sauvignon )光合特性、抗氧化系统以及农药降解代谢的影响,探讨EBR缓解农药对葡萄植株的伤害以及降低农药残留的作用。以酿酒葡萄品种赤霞珠盆栽苗为试材,研究EBR处理对百菌清胁迫下葡萄叶片光合气体交换参数、叶绿素荧光参数、活性氧和丙二醛含量、抗氧化物质含量、解毒酶活性以及叶片百菌清残留量的影响。结果表明:与对照相比,0.1 mg·L-1 EBR单独处理可提高葡萄叶片的光合特性,CHT处理(600倍液的百菌清)抑制了叶片光合作用,与CHT处理相比,EBR+CHT处理可显著提高叶片净光合速率( Pn )、气孔导度( Gs )和胞间CO2浓度( Ci ),以及叶片光合系统II (PSII )原初光能转换率( Fv/Fm )、实际光化学效率(ΦPSII )和光化学猝灭系数( qP);百菌清CHT处理使葡萄叶片过氧化氢(H2 O2)、超氧阴离子(O2·)和丙二醛(MDA )含量显著升高,而EBR+CHT处理使H2 O2、O2·和MDA含量分别比CHT处理降低32.5%、15.8%和4.7%,同时使还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH )和抗坏血酸(AsA )含量显著高于CHT处理;0.1 mg·L-1 EBR单独处理以及CHT处理均使叶片过氧化物酶(POD )、谷胱甘肽转移酶(GST)和谷胱甘肽还原酶(GR)活性有所提高,与CHT处理相比,EBR+CHT处理使叶片解毒酶活性进一步增强;EBR预处理加速了百菌清在叶片中的降解,显著降低了叶片农药残留量。研究得出:0.1 mg·L-1 EBR处理可促进葡萄叶片光合作用,提高抗氧化物质含量以及解毒酶活性,600倍液百菌清处理损害了葡萄叶片正常的光合作用和氧化还原平衡,外源0.1 mg·L-1 EBR预处理能通过改善叶片光合特性,减少活性氧物质和丙二醛的积累以及提高解毒酶活性以促进百菌清降解,从而缓解农药对植株的伤害。  相似文献
7.
以‘定莜6号’燕麦幼苗为试材,分析了旱盐交叉胁迫下叶片O2·和H2O2产生、膜脂过氧化及抗氧化系统的变化。结果表明,随着干旱和盐胁迫程度的提高,叶片活性氧代谢失调,细胞膜受到严重伤害,表现为SOD、POD和APX活性先升高后降低,AsA含量下降,CAT活性及GSH和丙二醛(MDA)含量升高,O2·和H2O2产生增加。0.3%的土壤含盐量可显著提高轻度(土壤含水量占田间持水量65%)和中度(土壤含水量占田间持水量50%)干旱胁迫下燕麦幼苗叶片SOD、POD和APX的活性,降低O2·产生速率及H2O2和MDA含量;0.6%的土壤含盐量对轻度干旱胁迫燕麦幼苗叶片的O2·产生速率及H 2O2和MDA含量无明显影响,却使中度干旱胁迫下的O2·产生速率及H2O2和MDA含量显著升高;在重度干旱(土壤含水量占田间持水量35%)胁迫下,随着土壤含盐量的增加,燕麦叶片SOD、CAT、POD、APX活性和AsA、GSH含量显著下降,O2·产生速率及H2O2和MDA含量明显增加。表明适量的土壤含盐量可通过提高抗氧化系统的活性缓解 轻、中度干旱胁迫对燕麦幼苗的伤害,而过量的盐分则加重干旱损伤。  相似文献
8.
The black leaf streak disease (BLSD), caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis, is the most destructive disease of bananas and plantains around the world. Breeding for resistance is the most promising strategy to fight this disease especially in small farmer plantations. Mycosphaerella fijiensis produces many phytotoxins such as juglone, which can be used, jointly with field and inoculations under controlled conditions, for screening banana cultivars for BLSD-resistance. This non-host specific phytotoxin has been shown to act on chloroplasts and disturbs the proton electrochemical gradient across the plasmalemma membrane. Moreover, an involvement of the oxidative burst during the interaction has been suggested. The present study was carried out using two cultivars that differed for either their juglone-responses or their resistance to BLSD (cv. Grande Naine susceptible to BLSD and juglone and cv. Fougamou partially resistant to BLSD and highly tolerant to juglone). The production of active oxygen species (AOS) and the enhancement of the enzymatic and/or non-enzymatic AOS-scavenging systems were investigated after treatment of the two cultivars with juglone. The time-course of AOS-production and AOS-scavenging was shown to be the key difference between these two tested cultivars after treatment with juglone. Thus, an early release of AOS (O2 radical and H2O2) and a quick stimulation of a preferment anti-oxidant system (superoxide dismutases, catalases, and peroxidases) was observed for cv. Fougamou as compared to cv. Grande Naine for which a late and weak generation of AOS accompanied by a late stimulation of the anti-oxidant systems were detected.  相似文献
9.
The occurrence and epidemic spread of ramularia leaf spot (RLS) caused by Ramularia collo-cygni was studied with relation to the plant age-dependent alterations in the antioxidative defence systems in the leaves during mature stages of field-grown winter barley. The breakdown of enzymatic activities of dehydroascorbate reductase, monodehydroascorbate reductase and glutathione reductase in the two uppermost fully expanded leaf layers correlated well with a decrease in the pool of the non-enzymatic antioxidants ascorbate and glutathione. The general decline in the antioxidative systems occurred between 31 May and 8 June after ear emergence stages and preceded the first visible symptoms of RLS. The activities of peroxidases corresponded to an increase in phenolics and lignification which seemed to enhance the infectivity of the fungus rather than to protect the plant. The first R. collo-cygni conidia were trapped in the field about 4 weeks before the latent infection was first detected by ELISA, and 5 weeks before the first disease symptoms became visible. Both the counts of airborne conidia and the weather data recorded between April and June suggest that neither inoculum nor the weather conditions are limiting factors for infection by R. collo-cygni at earlier growth stages of barley. It is concluded that the relatively late development of RLS in the field in mid June is governed by the significant degradation of the antioxidative protection systems in the leaves of barley at the onset of ripening stages, rather than by environmental factors or the availability of airborne inoculum.  相似文献
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