首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   6篇
  完全免费   2篇
  水产渔业   8篇
  2020年   3篇
  2014年   1篇
  2013年   1篇
  2010年   1篇
  2009年   2篇
排序方式: 共有8条查询结果,搜索用时 46 毫秒
1
1.
  1. The magnitude and temporal trends of seabird bycatch in coastal set net fisheries in the eastern part of the German Baltic Sea were studied, based on (i) a survey of 4% of the total fishery in the period 2006–2009, and (ii) results from bycatch monitoring in a part of this region covering a period of 20 years. Bird carcasses were collected and information on fishing effort obtained from fishermen using interviews and on‐board observations on selected trips.
  2. Bycatch of seabirds occurred with all types of fishing gear and métiers studied, with highest bycatch rates in coastal lagoons. The minimum estimate of total bycatch in nets set by 440 commercial fishermen was found to be 17 551 (range 14 905–20 533) birds annually between November and May. Bycatch in set nets and on longlines in summer was much lower.
  3. Bycatch rates were found to depend either directly on bird abundance as shown for the long‐tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) or on predictors of abundance such as water depth and location. Bycatch in the Pomeranian Bay has decreased over 20 years due to the severe decline of seaducks, particularly of long‐tailed ducks, which were most frequently bycaught. The estimated individual bycatch risk has also decreased in long‐tailed ducks but the current monthly losses of 0.81% may still indicate a potential threat for this species.
  4. Bycatch monitoring based on carcass collections and interviews proved to be feasible over a 20‐year period although the results contain some underreporting. Based on the results specific measures are recommended to reduce bycatch risk in the German coastal fisheries using targeted effort reductions and replacement of set nets with alternative gear.
Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
2.
  • 1. Conflicts between habitat use and conservation are inherent to the management of wetlands. A major challenge for their management is to preserve habitat while addressing the demands from multiple users. In southern Patagonia (Argentina), a growing aquaculture activity based on rainbow trout introductions in shallow lakes is generating concerns about the effects on the waterbird fauna, including some endemic species.
  • 2. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to analyse data on the endemic hooded grebe (Podiceps gallardoi) collected over a diverse set of lakes to: (1) build presence‐absence models as a function of environmental variables; (2) assess current and potential overlap with trout aquaculture; (3) explore the power of alternative lake assignment algorithms based on habitat variables to segregate critical habitat and aquaculture activities; and (4) explore the correlation between the probability of grebe presence and their abundance in given lakes.
  • 3. Hooded grebe presence is clearly correlated with macrophyte cover, lake area, and water conductivity. Medium size lakes, with a combination of emerging macrophytes, adjacent to open water areas had the highest probability of both hooded grebe presence and abundance.
  • 4. Different lake allocation scenarios are identified that could grant significant protection to hooded grebes without substantial losses for trout producers. The a priori probability to hold hooded grebe, assigned by the model based on lake characteristics, provides a tool that can be used by managing authorities to derive precautionary management rules to regulate aquaculture and to preserve primary hooded grebe habitat. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  相似文献
3.
  • 1. Wetlands are declining worldwide, and there is a great need for their restoration and creation. One natural agent of wetland engineering is beavers, Castor spp., which have returned or are returning to many parts of their former range.
  • 2. We initially studied the facilitative effect of the beaver Castor canadensis on a waterbird community consisting of three waders and four ducks in boreal wetlands in southern Finland. Both waterbird species diversity and abundance increased when beavers impounded a pond. Common teal Anas crecca and green sandpiper Tringa ochropus were the species showing the most positive numerical response, but the other five species also increased upon flooding.
  • 3. This article evaluates how the results of the study have been used in management, both in theory and practice. The whole‐community facilitation concept has been taken up in numerous articles considering the restorative effects of beavers. It has also been used as ecological background when planning and executing man‐made wetland projects in Finland within both the public and the private sectors.
  • 4. Our study and its publication in Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems have set a foundation for further evidence‐based management of waterbird communities. As the results show, having beavers as wetland managers is a feasible tool for creating and restoring wetlands for waterbirds and other biota. Moreover, wetland restoration projects are becoming more popular endeavours, owing to an understanding of the diverse benefits of wetlands. Flooding by beavers is used as a model for managers when creating man‐made wetlands; for example, in urban areas where it is difficult to maintain beavers.
  相似文献
4.
  • 1. Like many sea‐duck populations, the British breeding population of common scoters Melanitta nigra has declined markedly. In 2009, a study was established to measure factors affecting lake use by breeding scoters, to inform conservation measures. That study, published in Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems (AQC) in 2016, showed that lakes used by scoters had relatively more shallow water and large invertebrates. Furthermore, lakes with abundant large invertebrates had relatively few brown trout Salmo trutta. These results probably reflect the importance of foraging habitat (shallow water), prey abundance (large invertebrates), and competition for prey (trout abundance) in influencing scoter lake use.
  • 2. To develop this study, additional research, and scoter conservation measures, we formed a long‐term partnership, comprising nature conservation non‐governmental organizations, statutory agencies, fisheries managers and the regional hydropower company. The partnership meets regularly to coordinate and review research and develop conservation measures, building on the earlier lake‐use study.
  • 3. At key scoter lakes managed for hydropower, the partnership negotiated a revised water level management regime, favouring shallow water availability in the breeding season. This regime was informed by additional research, showing the value of certain islands for nesting scoters, and water level requirements to maintain these as islands.
  • 4. In a different key scoter area — an extensive near‐natural peatland where recreational angling takes place — the partnership established a trial of increased brown trout angling, with increased fish removal, to determine whether this would increase invertebrate prey abundance and benefit breeding scoters. Both conservation interventions are currently being evaluated by detailed monitoring.
  • 5. Overall, the earlier study published in AQC, was important in strengthening and informing our researcher–practitioner partnership, as we collaborated within an adaptive management framework to reverse scoter declines. Long‐term interdisciplinary partnerships are likely to have an important role to play in general, for the successful conservation of aquatic biodiversity.
  相似文献
5.
  • 1. The Strobel Meseta, a basaltic plateau of Patagonia (Santa Cruz Province, Argentina), holds thousands of shallow fishless lakes that are prime habitat for many species of waterbirds, including some considered ‘near threatened’. In recent years, several lakes have been stocked with trout which has created uncertainty about the potential effects on the recipient ecosystem.
  • 2. Limnological and topographical analyses were performed in a group of 32 lakes of the Strobel Meseta in order to characterize and classify individual lakes of the meseta based on their limnological and topographic features, analyze the association between lake type and use by aquatic birds in general and by the endemic hooded grebe (Podiceps gallardoi) in particular, and evaluate the overlap between trout aquaculture and critical habitat for waterbirds.
  • 3. The lakes were classified by multivariate analyses into four characteristic types: turbid, high conductivity lakes (T), small vegetated lakes (SV) and larger lakes which were subdivided into either vegetated (LV) or unvegetated (LU). In general, macrophyte cover was the main classificatory variable, whereas conductivity, pH, surface, and depth contributed moderately. Large vegetated lakes were generally found to be important for waterbirds and provided critical habitat for the hooded grebe, whereas trout farmers largely favoured large unvegetated lakes. However, since some large vegetated lakes have already been stocked, there is some level of geographical overlap between waterbird habitat and trout farming.
  • 4. The existence of some level of spatial segregation between production and critical waterbird habitat affords opportunities for designing a spatially‐based management system for trout aquaculture.
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.  相似文献
6.
  • 1. The Doñana wetland complex (SW Spain) holds more wintering waterfowl than any other wetland in Europe.
  • 2. This study focused on the use made by 12 common waterbirds (eight ducks and four waders) of the natural seasonal marshes in Doñana National Park (DNP) and the adjacent Veta la Palma (VLP) fish ponds created in the early 1990s. Data used were from aerial and terrestrial surveys collected between October and February during six consecutive winters from 1998/99 to 2003/04. Changes in distribution of each bird taxon were related to changes in the extent of flooded marshes within DNP. Up to 295 000 ducks were counted in VLP during dry periods, and up to 770 000 in DNP when it was flooded.
  • 3. The timing and extent of flooding in DNP was highly variable, but there was a consistent pattern in which ducks concentrated in VLP during dry months and winters but redistributed to DNP as more of it was flooded. This refuge effect was also strong for black‐tailed godwits Limosa limosa, but much less so for other waders. Waders feed mainly on invertebrates, and invertebrate biomass in VLP was found to be higher than in DNP. Ducks feed mainly on seeds and plant material, which are more abundant in DNP when flooded.
  • 4. When water levels in DNP were stable over the course of a winter, or controlled for in multivariate models, the numbers of ducks at VLP declined over time, probably due to reduced availability of plant foods. In contrast, numbers of waders at VLP were more stable, and their invertebrate prey became more abundant over time, at least in the winter 2003/4.
  • 5. In this extremely important wetland complex, the value of natural and artificial wetlands for wintering waterbirds are complementary, providing suitable habitat for different species and for different conditions in a highly variable Mediterranean environment.
Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
7.
水生植物种植是实现水鸟栖息地恢复的重要手段。目前面向湖泊的水生植物种植设计主要是针对水质治理,对水鸟栖息地的保护研究较少,且很少考虑植物种植对水位过程的适应性。本文将湖泊水位过程及植物生长特性相结合,提出一种满足鸟类栖息地恢复的水生植物种植设计新方案。以洪泽湖国家湿地自然保护区为例,根据当地鸟类栖息地的实际需求,将芦苇(Phragmites australis)等7种水生植物确定为种植对象。依据洪泽湖湖底高程,结合不同植物的生长水位要求以及植物发挥鸟类觅食及遮蔽两大功能的需求,探究了历史极端水位过程、历史平均水位过程及优化水位过程下的可种植水生植物种类及其可种植区域,并给出种植方案。结果表明:历史极端水位过程下,仅能种植芦苇1种水生植物,对鸟类栖息地恢复作用有限;历史平均水位过程下,可种植植物增加到4种,有利于扩展鸟类栖息地面积;优化水位过程下,能种植全部7种水生植物,并有效恢复鸟类栖息地面积。本研究面向洪泽湖湿地保护区鸟类栖息地保护,依据鸟类及植物对水位过程的需求提出植物种植方案,提高了方案的针对性,准确性,可为洪泽湖湿地植被恢复及鸟类栖息地保护提供借鉴。  相似文献
8.
  1. Wetlands are rich in biodiversity, but globally threatened. After a long period of regional extirpation, beavers have recently returned to many European areas and are now restoring wetlands. The beaver is remarkable regarding the large impacts it has not only on individual species but on entire communities and ecosystems. In fact, beavers are referred to as ‘ecosystem engineers’.
  2. The facilitative effect of the beaver Castor canadensis on a waterbird community of seven species of waders and ducks in boreal ponds was studied by using the before–after control–impact method (BACI) and analysing the effect of the duration of flooding. The before–after setting could be used since beavers had caused disturbance by flooding several forest ponds during the course of this long‐term study (1988–2009). The study took place in southern Finland, where waterbirds were surveyed four times during the breeding season.
  3. The number of waterbird species per pond per year was significantly higher during beaver inundation than before beaver activity, as was the waterbird abundance per survey. Changes were negligible in the controls. The numbers of all seven species increased during flooding, although the increase was significant in only three species. Common teal Anas crecca and green sandpiper Tringa ochropus showed the most positive numerical response to flooding. Mallard Anas platyrhynchos and wigeon Anas penelope were new species entering the duck guild in the flooded wetlands. The beneficial effect of the flood lasted the whole period of inundation, although the most substantial increase in species number appeared during the first two years of flooding.
  4. The beaver acted as a whole‐community facilitator for waterbirds. It was inferred from previous studies that this was done by modifying the habitat to make it more productive and structurally favourable. It is concluded that favouring beavers is a worthwhile tool in restoring wetlands to promote waterbird communities.
Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
1
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号