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文章综述了鱼类游泳能力的研究概况、鱼类游泳速度的分类和鱼类游泳能力的测定方法,分析比较了各种方法的优劣,以期为进一步优化鱼类游泳能力的评价指标、完善测试鱼类游泳能力的方法与手段提供参考。  相似文献
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通过测试鱼类的游泳能力,可为过鱼设施设计和鱼类行为学研究提供基础资料。在水温18.9~24.3℃和5.58~8.17 mg/L溶氧条件下,采用丹麦Loligo System公司的鱼类游泳能力环形试验水槽,以大渡河下游6种典型鱼类胭脂鱼(Myxocyprinus asiaticus)、长薄鳅(Leptobotia elongata)、长鳍吻鮈(Rhinogobio ventralis)、异鳔鳅鮀(Xenophysogobio boulengeri)、唇?(Hemibarbus labeo)、四川白甲鱼(Onychostoma angustistomata)为研究对象,分别对测试其感应流速、临界游泳速度和爆发游泳速度。结果显示:(1)测试鱼的平均感应流速:白甲鱼9.9~12.3 cm/s,唇?8.5~11.1 cm/s,异鳔鳅鮀12.0~17.5 cm/s,胭脂鱼8.3~13.5 cm/s,长薄鳅14.7~18.1 cm/s,长鳍吻鮈14.0~18.6 cm/s;(2)平均临界游速:白甲鱼106.3~131.1 cm/s,唇?67.9~78.4cm/s,异鳔鳅鮀72.9~80.5 cm/s,胭脂鱼78.1~89.9 cm/s,长薄鳅89.6~109.9 cm/s,长鳍吻鮈83.1~103.8 cm/s;(3)平均爆发游速:白甲鱼149.4~159.1 cm/s,唇?98.9~128.5 cm/s,异鳔鳅鮀98.5~141.5 cm/s,胭脂鱼92.3~125.7 cm/s,长薄鳅125.4~151.8 cm/s,长鳍吻鮈128.6~163.8 cm/s。根据测试结果,建议过鱼孔口近底边区域流速为1.0~1.2 m/s,其余高流速区适当放大至1.4~1.5 m/s;鱼道进口流速值为0.7~1.5 m/s,出鱼口设置在流速持续不小于0.3 m/s的水域,过鱼设施平均流速范围为0.6~1.0 m/s。  相似文献
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流速是影响鱼类生存的重要因子。为了了解鱼类在中等流速区的游泳行为,探究其对水流的适应特征,利用鱼类游泳能力测定装置,以鲢( Hypophthalmichthys molitrix ) 幼鱼[体重(9.82 ± 3.81) g,体长(8.56 ± 1.11) cm)]为对象,采用递增流速法,分析了游泳过程中的非疲劳贴网行为与姿态转换行为。结果表明,在22 °C 水温条件下,鲢幼鱼平均相对临界游泳速度(critical swimming speed, Ucrit) 为(6.00 ± 0.93)BL/s;其非疲劳贴网速度(no-fatigue impingement speed, Uimp)与临界游泳速度呈线性正相关,Ucrit = 1.03 Uimp + 1.26 (R2 = 0.86,P<0.01) ;姿态转换速度(gait transition speed, Utran)与临界游泳速度呈线性正相关,Utran = 0.59 Ucrit + 1.55 (R2 = 0.43,P<0.01) ;非疲劳贴网速度与姿态转换速度呈线性正相关,Utran = 0.51Uimp + 2.72 (R2 = 0.41,P<0.001) 。在中等流速范围内(2~4 BL/s),实验鱼摆尾频率(tail beat frequency, TBF)和单次摆尾周期前进距离(stride length, SL)均随流速增加而增大。首次出现非疲劳贴网的流速为4.62 BL/s,流速增至5.08 BL/s时出现姿态转换行为。发生姿态转换后,TBF开始下降,而SL随流速增加快速增大。研究显示,鲢幼鱼非疲劳贴网行为对游泳能力和姿态转换速度有显著影响,且非疲劳贴网行为与姿态转换行为之间也存在相互影响。研究结果可为自然环境中鱼类生态行为研究、鱼类资源保护及渔业管理提供参考。  相似文献
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在鱼类游泳能力测定装置中,采用流速递增法,测定了(10、15、20、25℃)条件下鲢幼鱼两次疲劳运动过程中临界游泳速度和耗氧率的变化,研究重复疲劳运动对鲢幼鱼游泳能力和活动代谢率的影响。结果表明,在10℃-25℃温度范围内,鲢幼鱼临界游泳速度随温度升高而呈线性增加(Ucrit,1=3.52 0.14T,R2=0.98,P<0.05;Ucrit,2=3.33 0.09T,R2=0.97,P<0.05)。运动最大耗氧量(MMR)和标准代谢率(SMR)均随温度升高而增加,且第一次测试耗氧率显著高于第二次测试耗氧率。运动后过量耗氧率(EPOC)随着温度升高而增加,与温度相关性显著(P=0.024);第二次测试疲劳后恢复耗氧率较第一次低,疲劳运动对EPOC影响不显著(P=0.36),结果表明适宜温度范围内温度对游泳能力和活动代谢起促进作用,疲劳运动对游泳能力和活动代谢不利,有一定抑制作用。以鲢幼鱼为研究对象,研究了温度和疲劳运动胁迫下代谢行为,为制定有效的鱼道提供数据参考。  相似文献
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晁帅  王萍  娄宇栋  竺琰  桂福坤 《水产学报》2017,41(3):392-400
本文以深水网箱养殖美国红鱼为研究对象,通过研究其游泳时的主要能量物质和代谢产物的变化规律,构建美国红鱼的游泳体能分配模型,最后结合特定的潮流规律,建立养殖海区最大潮流选择的理论方法。研究结果表明,美国红鱼游泳过程中,血糖浓度会显著提高,肌糖原有少量减少,肝糖原会显著降低,鱼类游泳接近疲劳时,肝糖原浓度亦接近耗尽;美国红鱼以较高速度游泳过程中,血乳酸和肌乳酸浓度会有较明显的增加,表明美国红鱼游泳过程伴随着无氧呼吸和有氧呼吸两种能量物质代谢过程。本文提出以肝糖原浓度作为判定鱼类持续游泳能力的重要指标,并建立了基于肝糖原储能消耗的美国红鱼游泳体能分配模型。最后基于美国红鱼体能分配模型,结合养殖海区潮流规律,提出了美国红鱼养殖海区最大潮流流速选择的计算方法。本文提出的鱼类游泳体能分配模型构建方法以及鱼类养殖海区潮流选择论证方法,可为相关研究提供新的途径,为深水网箱、浅海围网等海洋养殖模式的海区潮流选址提供科学的参考依据。  相似文献
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Fish differentially provision resources to eggs and larvae to optimise survival during the critical early life‐history period. Resource allocation is limited by a trade‐off between egg size and fecundity, and the optimal strategy varies with habitat type. This study examines the consequences of egg size differences for the early life‐histories of four closely related galaxiid species which occur in contrasting habitat types on the South Island, New Zealand. Headwater species had substantially larger water‐hardened eggs, longer incubation times, and newly hatched larvae were on average up to 41% longer than lower catchment species. Significant interspecific differences in gape diameter, eye diameter and myomere depth were also observed. Swimming ability was positively associated with larval length at hatch. Interspecific differences in length and swimming ability were generally maintained throughout the larval period, despite larvae being reared under relatively benign conditions where many other studies suggest initial differences should disappear. These results demonstrate the consequences of differential maternal provisioning to the egg for larval traits. The larger larvae of headwater species are likely to be more resistant to starvation and have improved foraging ability compared to lower catchment species; traits which are likely to confer them survival advantages in the low productivity, food‐scarce environments they occupy. The smaller larvae of lower catchment species are likely to be a consequence of females investing in fecundity in these relatively resource‐rich streams.  相似文献
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Abstract – Understanding the larval ecology of individual fish species is fundamental in ensuring their long‐term conservation. The endangered eastern freshwater cod, Maccullochella ikei, is endemic to the Clarence and Richmond River systems of north‐eastern New South Wales, Australia. Little is known about the behaviour of larval M. ikei in the wild, particularly before and after the swim‐up stage, and following dispersal from the nest site. The aims of this study were to quantify the swimming ability, depth selection, light preference and substrate selection of hatchling to day‐30 M. ikei under controlled laboratory conditions, and to describe its growth and development over the same period. Maccullochella ikei larvae grew constantly but not consistently during the experiment. Exogenous feeding commenced around day 12, prior to the full exhaustion of the yolk. Maximal swimming ability improved daily, but maximum swimming speed declined significantly between days 12 and 13 and remained low. Maccullochella ikei larvae were initially photonegative but were positively phototactic by day 10. Depth selection was for the benthos until day 8, beyond which time larvae dispersed to all depths when released. Substrate selection was for sand in younger larvae but changed to upstream substrates as the experiment progressed. The results of the current study suggest that the period between day 10 and day 20 is critical in the early ontogeny of M. ikei, when it switched phototrophic behaviour, transitioned from endogenous to exogenous feeding and experienced a decline in swimming ability.  相似文献
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