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Abstract –  Food consumption by Eurasian perch ( Perca fluviatilis L.) and ruffe ( Gymnocephalus cernuus [L.]) was studied in single and mixed-species treatments in the laboratory, where alternative food resources, chironomids and zooplankton, were offered simultaneously. The effects of structural complexity, which was represented by substrate grain size, and of feeding level on food consumption were analysed. Across all experiments, the outcome of competition between perch and ruffe depended on food abundance and on the structural complexity of the environment. Perch and ruffe both changed their food consumption in the presence of a heterospecific competitor. With high food supply, perch consumed more benthic food than ruffe. With low food supply, the consumption of perch decreased strongly, while that of ruffe remained high on fine sediment. Under all conditions tested, the mechanism of competition appeared to be of interference rather than of exploitative nature. It is suggested that with decreasing lake productivity caused by re-oligotrophication, habitat shifts of both species will occur, which will alleviate interspecific competition. Ruffe will forage over fine sediment and perch over coarse sediment, whereby both species will achieve the highest foraging efficiency under conditions of low food supply.  相似文献
2.
The functional response describes how consumption rate of individual predators changes as prey density changes, and can have important implications for the bottom culture of scallops. We examined (i) the functional response of rock crabs (Cancer irroratus) preying on juvenile sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus); (ii) the effect of substrate type and scallop size on the functional response; and (iii) the underlying behavioural mechanisms of observed functional responses. Specifically, we quantified predation rate and behaviours, such as the proportion of time spent searching for prey, encounter rate between predators and prey and the outcomes of encounters, when individual rock crabs were offered a range of scallop density (2–50 or 11–111 scallops m−2) and two size classes of scallops (∼ ∼25 and ∼ ∼35 mm shell height) on two different substrate types (“glass-bottom” and “granule”). We found that crab predation rate on small juvenile scallops increased at a decelerating rate with prey density to a plateau at high prey density on both substrates, indicating a hyperbolic (type II) functional response. Crab predation rate on large juvenile scallops was independent of prey density (i.e., no functional response evident), suggesting that crabs were at their satiation level. Prey density did not influence any behaviour except encounter rate on small juvenile scallops, which increased as prey density increased. Substrate type influenced crab predation: maximum predation rate of crabs on small juvenile scallops and encounter rate with either size of juvenile scallops was lower on granule than on glass-bottom. Our results in the laboratory suggest that crabs could potentially be swamped if scallops are seeded at a high density in the field. However, many factors in the field may influence the functional response. For example, the presence of multiple prey types may lead to sigmoid functional responses, while the presence of many crab individuals may lead to aggregation of crabs in areas of high prey density.  相似文献
3.
It is advantageous for fish to choose different substrate types and brightness based on their current life cycle stage, foraging requirements, predator avoidance and water conditions. We determined the substrate type and brightness preference of hatchery‐reared and wild juvenile Schizothorax wangchiachii and Percocypris pingi under laboratory conditions. Individuals and groups were exposed to four kinds of substrate types (sand: diameter < 1 mm, small gravel: diameter approximately 2–3 cm, large gravel: diameter approximately 10–15 cm, sand and medium gravel mix: diameter approximately 4–7 cm) and two kinds of substrate brightness (black and white). The results showed that hatchery‐reared and wild S. wangchiachii and P. pingi significantly preferred large gravel and black substrates regardless of the number of fish (p < .05). P. pingi had a significantly higher preference for black substrate than S. wangchiachii both in hatchery‐reared and wild individuals (p < .05). Hatchery‐reared and wild individuals of the two species shared a preference for large gravel and black substrates suggesting that substrate preferences might be genetically based. The findings in the present study could be used to improve the rearing conditions for the two species in hatchery and thereafter to enhance its adaptability after releasing to the wild.  相似文献
4.
Factors influencing within‐farm variability of wild fish aggregations have not been systematically studied. We tested the hypothesis that fish abundance and species composition vary between feeding and non‐feeding periods and different bottom substrates within a Sparus aurata (L.) farm. Sampling took place during feeding and non‐feeding periods on six consecutive days in July 2011. Visual censuses were carried out at three different depths and at three sampling stations over rocky–sandy and sandy substrates respectively. In all, 33 species belonging to 17 families were observed. Total fish abundance, biomass and species community significantly differed between feeding and non‐feeding periods. Each depth was represented by a distinct species community and was therefore affected differently by the feeding activity. At the surface, fish abundance was significantly higher during feeding compared with non‐feeding periods. The distance from the feeding vessel significantly influenced fish aggregations in the water column, indicating that planktivorous species learnt to associate the boat noise with food availability through classic conditioning. At the bottom, substrate type was the dominant factor explaining aggregation variability. This study provides new information about the dynamics of fish aggregations within farms, emphasizing the importance of considering the different sources of variability in future study designs.  相似文献
5.
Abstract –  Acoustic technologies were applied to describe how landlocked Arctic char from Iqalugaajuruluit Lake, Baffin Island, interact with its lacustrine habitat. Acoustic data from the lake bottom was collected using sonar equipment and substrate types were verified with benthic grabs and mapped in a geographic information system. Arctic char movements during the open water period were recorded from char fitted with acoustic tags. The distribution of the tagged Arctic char in Iqalugaajuruluit Lake was dependent on fish size and related to abiotic factors such as depth, substrate type and depth/temperature, temporally. The volume of water with temperatures below 6 °C during the open water period may be a limiting factor for large char (>400 mm) in small Arctic lakes. The large piscivorous char are found most often in the deepest water over soft substrates and the smaller char which feed on varying proportions of invertebrates and fish were found most often over the more complex substrates such as boulders, pebbles and gravel.  相似文献
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