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While recent evidence suggests that North Pacific salmon stocks are influenced by decadal variability in atmospheric forcing of the ocean, the actual combination of physical and biological processes that determines this linkage has not been identified. This paper describes a possible scenario in which water column stability is the primary factor by which the physical environment influences phytoplankton production, the basis for production at higher trophic levels. Variation in the strength of the wintertime Aleutian Low pressure area affects water column stabilities, hence primary production, along the entire eastern boundary of the North Pacific. The `optimal stability window' explains the qualitative relationship between fish stocks and the strength of the winter Aleutian Low, as well as the observed out-of-phase variation between northern and southern salmon stocks.  相似文献
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ABSTRACT:   Vertical profiles of water quality were surveyed before and after mass mortality of fish cultured in cages in Lake Cirata, a man made lake in Indonesia. The first survey was performed 4 months before the mass mortality and the second survey was carried out 4 days after the mass mortality. In the first survey, the conditions below 8 m depth were reductive and anoxic, although at 8 and 10 m depth, the water became oxidative in spite of low oxygen concentration in the second survey. These changes were probably caused by strong mixing of surface water with deeper water. Eight months after the mass mortality, when the redox potential at 8 m became reductive again, exposure tests of fish were performed in different layers in the water column around the cage. During the exposure tests the redox potential of the water was less than −100 mV and 93% of carp died within 6 h of exposure at 8 m depth. These results indicated that the mass mortality was caused by the strong mixing of surface water with reductive water in deeper layers.  相似文献
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池塘养殖水体不同水层水质变化研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
为探讨池塘养殖水体时间和空间上的变化特征,在上海市标准化养殖池塘里进行了水质参数监测和分析,研究了池塘上层、中层、下层不同水层的水质变化情况。结果表明:一年中池塘水质呈季节性变化,氨氮均值在9—11月最高,在5月份最低;溶氧均值在9—11月最低,在12月至次年3月最高;pH无明显季节性变化。不同水质参数日变化研究发现,一天中氨氮值在6:00左右最高,在17:00左右最低;溶氧最高值出现在15:00—17:00,最低值在5:00左右;pH在1:00最低,14:00左右最高。养鱼池塘水体有较明显的分层现象,上层、中层、下层不同水层的氨氮、溶氧、pH均有差异。一天中氨氮与溶氧总体呈负相关性(t<0.05),溶氧值升高时氨氮值下降。  相似文献
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底充式增氧对改善池塘水质效果的初步研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
在凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)和三疣梭子蟹(Portunus trituberculatus)养殖池塘中进行了底充式增氧对池塘水质改善效果试验。结果表明,增氧2~3h能减小或消除池塘温度和溶解氧(DO)跃层,显著提高池塘底层水体的ρ(DO)(P〈0.05)。在上午8:00~11:00这段时间开增氧机的效果最佳;试验池塘的氨氮(NH4+-N)和亚硝酸盐(NO2--N)的质量浓度为对照池塘的72.5%~74.1%和2.6%~2.7%,能促进池塘氧化反应,降低有害物质的含量,改善池塘环境条件。  相似文献
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Thermal stratification negatively affects water quality, and thus is a threatto fish culture in deep water ponds and reservoirs. To prevent and controlit, a device based on an underwater propeller that vertically transportsoxygen rich warm water from the epilimnion down to the anoxic and colderhypolimnion was assembled. The empirical results so far obtained in Israelidual purpose reservoirs for field crop irrigation and fish culture aresummarized herein, and a mathematical model of the device's effect onreservoir thermal structure is presented.  相似文献
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Dual-purpose reservoirs for field irrigation and fish culture are characterized by the simultaneous (a) increase in standing crop biomass and feeds during the fish culture period and (b) decrease of water level due to irrigation. This management practice affects stratification, which in turn affects water quality and may affect the fish stocked. To study the limnology of dual-purpose reservoirs, an extensive sampling programme including automatic continuous recording and manual water sampling in deep and shallow reservoirs was carried out. This paper describes limnological changes during the week in which a 3 month long seasonal stratification ended and fish kills occurred. Management implications of stratification are also discussed. The data presented are the first continuous records of this process in this particular type of water body.  相似文献
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SUMMARY: This paper evaluates the stocking effectiveness of masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou in Hokkaido, northern Japan, through a coast-wide two-stage sampling survey of commercial landings. From January to June 1994–1996, commercial landings of masu salmon at 33–36 fish markets were sampled at 7–10 days intervals, and 60 866–72 124 fish were examined for marks indicated by fin clips. Based on the survey data, numbers of total and hatchery-reared masu salmon landed were estimated. To examine the structure of the errors, stratification of fish markets was implemented on the basis of geography and magnitudes of landings, and the stratification improved accuracy and precision of the estimates. Accuracy of the estimated numbers of total fish was evaluated by being compared to the true numbers of masu salmon landings reported by fishermen's cooperative associations. Estimates of total masu salmon landings were within ± 10% of the true numbers. The estimated recovery rates (± SE) for hatchery-reared masu salmon smolts were variable ranging from 0.18 (± 0.06) to 3.50 (± 0.41)% among the stocked groups. An optimal sampling strategy was examined to obtain precise estimates for future studies.  相似文献
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Salmon production cages at sites with a pronounced thermal stratification give individual fish an opportunity to choose their thermal environment. The behavioural responses of individual salmon to such stratification, however, are poorly documented. Information about spatial distributions and temperature experience of individual Atlantic salmon (initial weight 1.5 kg) was gathered over a period of 4 months (mid-August to early-December) using data storage tags. Fish were stocked at normal or high densities in triplicate 2000 m3 production cages at 5.6–14.5 (ND) or 15.7–32.1 (HD) kg m− 3, and valid data were collected for 12 ND and 11 HD salmon. There were large inter- and intra-individual variations in swimming depth, with indications that the salmon performed behavioural thermoregulation in an attempt to maintain body temperature within the range of 8–20 °C. Stocking density influenced the average swimming depth and body temperature, indicating competition for preferred thermal space in periods of unfavourably high temperature (towards 20 °C) in large parts of the cage volume. Analysis of temporal behavioural patterns demonstrated a higher variability during day than night and that 60 to 70% of the individuals displayed cyclic diel patterns in either swimming depth or body temperature in at least one out of three sub-periods. The results are discussed in relation to bio-energetic and thermal stress theory and possible consequences for growth variation in salmon cages. Generally, this study suggests that individual swimming depth and body temperature is in part a response to available temperature interacting with stocking density and time of day, while some individual variation cannot be ascribed to the measured variables.  相似文献
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