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1.
The enhancement of cod stocks   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Atlantic cod have been a primary target for marine stock enhancement since the 1880s. In the early part of this period, hatched larvae were released in Norway, the USA and Canada. The last larval releases were conducted in Norway in 1971, and a century of cod larvae releases were halted without any clear evidence of benefit. Since the early 1980s, the focus has been on production of larger, more viable juvenile cod. Emphasis has been given to the design of tag–release programmes involving large-scale releases and ecosystem analysis in selected ecosystems. Most of this research has been carried out in Norway, where more than one million tagged juvenile cod have been released. Smaller stocking experiments have also been performed in Denmark, Sweden, the Faroe Islands and the USA.
This paper reviews the major findings from these programmes. We include summaries and evaluations of rearing techniques for juvenile cod, methods of tagging and recapture, experimental fishing, migration, mortality and growth rates in the different habitats, genetic analysis, and ecosystem studies that have tried to describe the variation in the cod carrying capacity of selected release areas.
Despite relatively large variation in environmental conditions, in cod production and in fishing mortality along the Norwegian coast, results indicate that, under the conditions experienced during the 1980s and 1990s, releases of juvenile cod did not significantly increase cod production and catches. The biological limitations and future prospects of Atlantic cod stock enhancement are addressed.  相似文献
2.
Stocking, transfer and introduction of fish are commonly used to mitigate loss of stocks, enhance recreational or commercial catches, restore fisheries, or to create new fisheries. However, many stocking programmes are carried out without definition of objectives or evaluation of the potential or actual success of the exercise. The present paper describes a strategic approach to stocking aimed at maximizing the potential benefits. A protocol is discussed which reviews factors such as the source of the fish, the stocking density, the age and the size of fish at stocking, the timing of stocking, and the mechanism of stocking. Finally, the effects of social, cultural and economic constraints on the potential outcome of stock enhancement programmes are discussed.  相似文献
3.
我国海洋牧场建设回顾与展望   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
杨红生 《水产学报》2016,40(7):1133-1140
海洋牧场是基于海洋生态学原理和现代海洋工程技术,充分利用自然生产力,在特定海域科学培育和管理渔业资源而形成的人工渔场.海洋牧场的特点包括以增加渔业资源量为目的、具有明确的边界和权属、苗种主要来源于人工育苗或驯化、通过放流或移植进入自然海域、主要以天然饵料为食和对资源实施科学管理等.早在1965年,我国学者曾呈奎先生就原创性地提出在海洋中通过人工控制种植或养殖海洋生物,建设“牧场”的理念.上世纪八十年代以来,我国海洋牧场经历了从增殖放流、人工鱼礁建设到系统化的海洋牧场发展过程,在取得巨大成就的同时,也面临着海洋牧场的涵义应用过于宽泛、缺乏统筹规划和科学论证、忽视海洋牧场生态作用以及忽视项目评估和系统管理等问题.展望未来,我国的海洋牧场建设应在“生态优先、陆海统筹、三产贯通、四化同步、创新跨越”的发展理念指导下,加强海洋牧场建设的宏观引导、推动海洋牧场体系化建设、实施海洋牧场企业化运营,在获得经济效益的同时,实现产业繁荣和保持健康生态系统的和谐统一.  相似文献
4.
为研究山东沿海三疣梭子蟹增殖放流亲蟹群体的遗传多样性状况,实验采用536bp的线粒体DNA控制区片段作为分子标记,对4个亲蟹群体的遗传多样性和遗传结构进行了分析。结果显示,301个三疣梭子蟹个体共检测到155个单倍型,4个群体的单倍型多样度为0.9723 ~ 0.9930、核苷酸多样度为0.0212 ~ 0.0236,表现出丰富的遗传多样性。AMOVA分析和Fst值分析结果均显示,4个三疣梭子蟹亲蟹群体间遗传分化微弱,未形成明显的遗传结构,NJ系统树中亦未出现与各群体相对应的的谱系分支。研究表明,4个增殖放流亲蟹群体的遗传多样性丰富,且其遗传结构与放流海域的野生群体间没有明显分化,种质资源质量较好。此外,群体历史动态分析显示,渤海南部和黄海北部的三疣梭子蟹历史上曾经历过群体扩张事件。  相似文献
5.
基于2010年5月和8月渤海渔业调查数据,结合1959年以来渤海鱼类相关文献资料,对渤海鱼类群落结构的演替、主要增殖放流鱼类的资源动态作了初步分析.结果表明,渤海鱼类群落优势种由个体大、营养层次高的带鱼Trichiurus haumela、半滑舌鳎Cynoglossus semilaevis等优质底层鱼类逐渐被黄鲫Setipinna taty、鳀Engra ulis ja ponicus等个体小、营养层次低的小型中上层鱼类所替代,并且除黄鲫外,其他小型鱼类优势种也在不断更替中.另外,生物健康度指数(BHI)分析显示,渤海鱼类群落处于相对不稳定状态.鱼类资源量急剧降低,尤其在5月,CPUE由1959年的186 kg/h下降至目前不足1 kg/h,鱼类资源密集区主要分布在莱州湾、渤海湾和渤海中部,而辽东湾分布相对较少,并且鱼类资源与海蜇呈交错分布.近年来,渤海增殖放流的鱼类仅有花鲈Lateolabrax japonicus和许氏平鲉Sebastes schlegeli的资源量有小幅度回升,其他种类从20世纪80年代开始资源量一直处于下降趋势.从渤海鱼类群落结构的演替和增殖放流鱼类的资源量变化来看,渤海鱼类群落依旧是小型经济价值较低的种类控制其能流结构.除花鲈外,其他增殖放流鱼类的资源量均不足历史最高资源量的1%,其资源量的恢复尚有很大的空间,增殖潜力很大.  相似文献
6.
山东半岛南部海域三疣梭子蟹增殖放流群体回捕率   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
根据2010年和2011年5-8月在山东半岛南部海域对三疣梭子蟹(Portunus trituberculatus)增殖放流前后分别进行的每年3个航次的对比调查结果,定量分析了三疣梭子蟹自然群体和增殖放流群体的数量,并根据三疣梭子蟹放流苗种数量和放流后捕捞产量,对三疣梭子蟹增殖放流群体回捕率进行分析.研究结果表明,2010年5月山东半岛南部海域三疣梭子蟹增殖放流前自然群体资源量很少,相对资源密度为0.90 ind/(站.h);在5-6月共放流苗种11 015.13万只,放流后10d左右资源量增加为26.08 ind/(站.h),放流群体所占的比例为96.55%;8月进行调查的相对资源密度为1.70 ind/(站.h),当年生群体数量占所有群体数量的比例为64.29%;9月、10月、11月秋汛期间捕捞产量为3 108 t,捕捞个体平均质量为232.3 g,增殖放流群体回捕率为7.54%.201 1年5月山东半岛南部海域三疣梭子蟹增殖放流前自然群体相对资源密度为1.70 ind/(站.h);在5-6月共放流苗种13 132万只,放流后10d左右资源量增加为29.15 ind/(站.h),放流群体所占的比例为94.17%;8月进行调查的相对数量为1.00 ind/(站.h),当年生群体数量占所有群体数量的比例为70.00%;9月、10月、11月秋汛期间捕捞产量为2 896 t,回捕个体平均质量为226.0 g,增殖放流群体回捕率为6.43%.除2011年胶州湾海域由于富营养化水质较差,以及其他因素对黄家塘湾海域的影响导致这两个放流点放流群体回捕率偏低外,2010年和2011年山东半岛南部放流海域整体水质良好,水温、透明度、盐度、营养盐比例、生物饵料等均比较适中,属于放流环境条件较佳的海域,比较适合三疣梭子蟹生长,放流群体回捕率整体上处于较高水平.  相似文献
7.
Abstract:   The horizontal and vertical movements of eight immature hatchery-reared Mekong giant catfish Pangasianodon gigas were monitored using acoustic telemetry in Mae Peum Reservoir, Thailand between 2003 and 2004. The fish were monitored for between eight days and more than 9 months. All of the fish moved over the entire reservoir within approximately 40 days after release. Subsequently, the home range became small approximately 40 days after release. The fish preferred deep areas in the reservoir. The fish displayed diel horizontal and vertical movement patterns. The fish showed larger-scale horizontal movement during the daytime than at night. The fish repeatedly showed active vertical movement during the day, whilst there was little variation in swimming depth at night. Our results imply that the vertical movements of the fish were related to the environmental condition of the reservoir.  相似文献
8.
This paper reviews the stock enhancement programme for black sea bream ( Acanthopagrus schlegelii ) in Hiroshima Bay. This bay is one of the biggest production areas for black sea bream in Japan, accounting for about 10% of the total catch of the species in this country in 2004. After intensive fishing pressure caused a drastic decline in the catch of the species in this bay in the 1970s, a stock enhancement programme was conducted in its northern part since 1982 to restore the depleted population. The number of black sea bream juveniles released in 1996 surpassed 9 million, representing the third main species stocked in Japan. Almost 1.4 million of these juveniles were released into Hiroshima Bay. The fast acclimatization of hatchery-reared juveniles released into the bay may have contributed to the recovery of landings in the late 1980s and 1990s. However, this recovery was accompanied by a reduction in the market price of black sea bream. Further studies to assess the effectiveness of the stock enhancement programme as well as the carrying capacity of Hiroshima Bay to maintain the stock of black sea bream at a stable, healthy level are desirable. The necessity of evaluating the secondary effects derived from using a reduced number of breeders as well as finding new markets are suggested.  相似文献
9.
The genetic contribution of 51 broodstock, comprising 29 females and 22 males, reared at Hiroshima City Marine Products Promotion Center for the production of stocked black sea bream was monitored during two consecutive years using seven microsatellite DNA loci. The high discrimination ability of these markers was reflected in the polymorphic identification content (PIC=0.831), the exclusion probability (Q≈1), and the low probability of identity index (I=3.635−10). The total number of breeders contributing to the mating process was estimated at 32 (62.7%) in 2000 and 30 (58.8%) in 2001. On pedigree reconstruction, 69.3% of the offspring were successfully assigned to a single broodstock pair. Loss of alleles accounted for 16.9% during seed production; nevertheless, 90.9% of males and 69.0% of females participated in the mating process. Based on microsatellite genetic tagging, 58.9% of the fish sampled during the two months after release were identified as hatchery stock, presenting no significant differences from wild conspecifics in either fork length or body weight.  相似文献
10.
ABSTRACT:   Post-release movement and diel activity patterns of hatchery-reared and wild black-spot tuskfish were examined using ultrasonic telemetry. Five hatchery-reared and four wild fish were released in the sandy bottom of Urasoko Bay, Ishigaki Island, Okinawa, Japan, and monitored using automated monitoring receivers from November 2005 to February 2006. Both hatchery-reared and wild fish tended to stay near the release site for over two weeks, before leaving the release site. Both hatchery-reared and wild tuskfish showed diurnal rhythm intermittently; signals were recorded more frequently in the daytime and less frequently in the nighttime, suggesting that the fish of both origins were active during the day and inactive during the night. These findings indicate that the one-year-old hatchery-reared tuskfish have some consistent behavioral characteristics with those of the wild.  相似文献
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