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1.
柘林湾海洋牧场不同功能区食物网结构   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
海洋牧场是由多个功能区组成的生态系统工程,不同功能区的生态环境和食物网结构各不相同,通过研究不同功能区食物网结构有助于了解功能区之间生态系统差异。实验通过对南澳柘林湾海洋牧场渔业资源环境调查,利用碳氮稳定同位素技术对海洋牧场不同功能区食物网结构进行比较,并借助SIBER对稳定同位素数据进行分析。结果显示,海洋牧场调查共采获生物种类78种,其中,消费者的δ~(13)C比值介于–19.94‰~–13.62‰,δ~(15)N比值介于8.78‰~15.29‰,营养级范围介于1.73~3.64。不同功能区同位素数据对比表明,人工鱼礁区生物资源相对丰富,食物网结构较为复杂;海藻增殖区中生物生态位分布最广,营养冗余程度较高;贝类增殖区生物生态位较窄,营养级分布较为集中。在不同功能区生态系统稳定性对比中,人工鱼礁区生态系统稳定性最佳,海藻增殖区生态系统稳定性较差。  相似文献
2.
ABSTRACT:   Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were determined in the baleen plates of 17 common minke whales Balaenoptera acutorostrata from the north-western Pacific Ocean off Japan, as well as prey species (krill Euphausia pacifica , Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus and Pacific saury Cololabis saira ) collected in the stomach contents, to investigate the trophic relationship between the minke whales and their prey. A few δ15N-depleted peaks occurred along the length of baleen plates for 10 males irrespective of stomach content (anchovies and sauries). Similar δ15N-depleted peaks were also found for one female and two immature individuals. It was likely that these δ15N-depleted peaks formed in early summer. The stable nitrogen isotope ratio (δ15N) values in Pacific saury (9.3 ± 1.4‰) did not differ significantly from that in Japanese anchovy (8.8 ± 0.9‰). In contrast, δ15N in krill (7.2 ± 0.5‰ in July and 8.0 ± 0.2‰ in September) were significantly lower than in the Pacific saury. Thus, these peaks may reflect the dietary change from krill to fishes in the feeding migration of the whales. Growth rate of the baleen plate was estimated to be 129 mm/y, and it appeared that a dietary record of about 1.4 years remained in the baleen plate. For two immature whales, the maximum value of δ15N occurred at the tip of baleen. This δ15N enrichment may possibly be useful for discriminating weanlings and older whales.  相似文献
3.
李聪  成永旭  管勤壮  奚业文  李嘉尧 《水产学报》2018,42(11):1778-1786
为改善克氏原螯虾在稻—虾共作模式下对稻田中丰富自然资源的利用效率,本研究通过在饲料中添加碳源(麸皮、葡萄糖)调节饲料"碳/氮"(C/N)分别为8,12,16三个组别进行投喂,利用稳定性同位素技术分析各组克氏原螯虾的食性。结果显示,(1)不同C/N投喂组中不同规格成虾肌肉中的δ13C和δ15N值均较本底显著降低,成虾肌肉的δ13C值随投喂饲料C/N的增加而下降,B组不同规格成虾肌肉的δ15N值均较其他两组高。同一C/N投喂处理组中,1级小规格成虾肌肉的δ13C和δ15N值均为最高。(2)通过食性分析,组A中不同规格的克氏原螯虾的第一食物来源均为饲料,占比38.03%~44.17%,组B中饲料仍为不同规格克氏原螯虾的第一食物来源,但是占比下降为22.13%~25.35%,组C中1级小规格成虾中有机碎屑为第一食物来源,占19.93%,2级中规格成虾及3级大规格成虾的第一食物来源饲料进一步下降为18.85%和19.40%,组B及组C中浮游动物、藻类、喜旱莲子草等天然饵料食物来源占比均较组A显著增加。研究表明,通过优化C/N的投喂模式,可以提高克氏原螯虾对于稻田天然饵料的利用率,避免饲料的过度使用和浪费,有利于实现对稻田资源的合理利用。  相似文献
4.
于2013年夏季对枸杞岛海藻场螺类优势种角蝾螺进行了稳定同位素、摄食选择性、消化代谢物粒径等系列实验.稳定同位素结果显示,角蝾螺是牧食性生物,在藻场中的营养级为2.12,属初级消费者,底栖海藻是角蝾螺的主要食源,贡献率为94.5%;摄食选择性实验结果显示,角蝾螺具有较宽的摄食选择,能够摄食海带、铜藻、粗枝软骨藻等1 1种大型藻类,其中铜藻及蜈蚣藻是枸杞岛潮下带的重要优势种;消化代谢物实验结果显示,角蝾螺的啃食作用能为藻场碎屑提供增量,角蝾螺对海藻场碎屑的增量为(0.016 ~0.094)g/d,经过啃食及消化作用产生的碎屑主要粒级为1Φ(> 250 μm).稳定同位素分析—摄食选择偏好实验—螺类消化代谢物粒径分析的系列研究表明,角蝾螺在枸杞岛海藻场的群落食物网中,可以起到连接牧食食物链和碎屑食物链的重要作用.  相似文献
5.
应用同位素分析黑龙江中游主要鱼类营养层次   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
2010年5月—2011年10月对黑龙江中游采集的32种鱼类和6种底栖无脊椎动物,运用稳定碳、氮同位素方法进行水生态营养层次的分析。结果显示,鱼类δ13C值为-32.00‰~-17.32‰,相差14.68‰;δ15N值为7.58‰~14.78‰,差值达6.80‰,跨度都很大。底栖无脊椎动物δ13C值和δ15N值的跨度不大,δ13C值为-29.64‰~-26.10‰,相差3.54‰;δ15N值为7.09‰~9.91‰,相差2.82‰。通过δ15N值计算出黑龙江中游32种主要鱼类和6种底栖无脊椎动物食物网营养层次,其中肉食性鱼类鳇(Huso dauricus)占据了黑龙江中游鱼类中最高的营养位置。通过分析初步建立了水体食物网连续营养谱,并结合底栖无脊椎动物同位素数据勾勒出黑龙江中游食物网营养结构图。  相似文献
6.
硝氮(NO3--N)和氨氮(NH4+-N)是水体中无机氮的主要形态。利用15N稳定同位素技术研究了斜生栅藻(Scendesmus obliquus)对NO3--N和NH4+-N的吸收特征。结果显示,在相同浓度条件下,斜生栅藻对NH4+-N的吸收速率显著高于对NO3--N的吸收率,在180min的试验中,对15NH4+-N的吸收速率为0.62~1.15μmol/(g·min);对15NO3--N的吸收速率为0.08~0.15μmol/(g·min)。在NO3--N和NH4+-N2种形态氮源同时存在的混合组中,斜生栅藻对NO3--N的吸收速率[0.12~1.00μmol/(g·min)]显著低于NO3--N作为唯一氮源的单一组[0.78~1.23μmol/(g·min)],表明NH4+-N的存在对藻类吸收NO3--N有抑制作用。在14NO3--N和15NO3--N同时存在时,斜生栅藻优先吸收14NO3--N,产生同位素分馏效应,但不同形态氮对藻类氮吸收的影响远远大于同位素的影响。  相似文献
7.
基于稳定同位素方法的珊瑚礁鱼类营养层次研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
以珊瑚礁生态系统中的鱼类作为研究对象,对2006年9月至2007年8月期间在徐闻珊瑚礁海区采集到的鱼类样本分类鉴定后,运用稳定碳氮同位素方法进行鱼类营养层次的分析。结果表明,δ13C值和δ15N值的跨度都很大,δ13C值的范围为–20.98‰~–9.05‰,相差11.93‰;δ15N值的范围为11.66‰~18.15‰,差值达6.49‰。与其他海区相比,δ13C值和δ15N值显得更为富集。由δ15N值计算出来的营养层次表明,徐闻珊瑚礁鱼类分布在两端(杂食性鱼类与高级肉食性鱼类)的只占少数,绝大多数居于中间的层次(低级肉食性鱼类与中级肉食性鱼类)。在134种鱼类中,种类数最多的是以条尾鲱鲤、少鳞代表的低级肉食性鱼类,有70种,占鱼类总数的52%;其次是以细鳞鯻、龙头鱼为代表的中级肉食性鱼类,有47种,占鱼类总数的35%;鰶以斑、前鳞骨鲻为代表的杂食性鱼类和以宽尾斜齿鲨、杂食豆齿鳗为代表的高级肉食性鱼类各有11种、6种,分别占鱼类总种类数的8%和5%。在此基础上选取54种鱼类进行稳定同位素方法与胃含物法分析结果对比,发现约85%的鱼种采用两种方法测定的结果在0.5个营养级的误差范围内一致,只有少数鱼种的差值大于0.5个营养级。由此可见稳定同位素分析法与传统的胃含物分析法所得的结果有很好的一致性,稳定同位素分析法是一种研究海洋食物网营养层次的有效方法。  相似文献
8.
Abstract – The trophic ecology of many fish species in cold temperate lakes is often characterized by a generalist or opportunist strategy. In this study, the diets of polytrophic brown trout in Loch Ness, Scotland, have been examined using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to complement gut content analyses and aging by otolith annuli counts. Using the stable isotope ratios, it was possible to trace trout ontogeny from parr development in a natal river to piscivory in the pelagic. Potential dilution of maternal isotope signatures from eggs to parr was also demonstrated. Despite the low productivity of the loch, intraspecific variability in isotope ratios suggested dietary specialization, rather than opportunism, in some individuals.  相似文献
9.
ABSTRACT:   It is important to clarify trophic dynamics in marine ecosystems for management of the fishing ground. Organic carbon sources and trophic position of pelagic fishes in the coastal waters of the south-eastern Izu Peninsula, Japan, were examined on the basis of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope distributions. The δ13C of the fishes was mostly distributed from −19 to −16‰ for nektonic fishes (13 species of adults and immatures) and planktonic fishes (10 species of larvae and juveniles), close to the δ13C values of particulate organic matter and planktonic decapods. These δ13C signatures for the inhabitants of the water column were in contrast with the high δ13C values (mainly −16 to −13‰) for demersal fishes of Scorpaeniformes and benthic polychaetes collected in the surf zone. These results indicate that nektonic and planktonic fishes depend on phytoplankton for carbon supply. The δ15N signatures suggest that the trophic position ranged 3.1–4.5 for the nektonic fishes and 2.9–3.7 for the planktonic fishes, premised on trophic level 3 for larval Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus . Thus, planktivorous fishes should be mainly assigned to trophic levels 3 and 4 in this area.  相似文献
10.
Abstract:   The community and trophic structures of the subtidal habitat of the abalone Haliotis diversicolor were examined in Nagai, Sagami Bay, Japan. Conventional community indices showed no significant differences among three sampling stations. The overall continuum of stable isotope ratios was structured into three different trophic linkages: (i) brown algae-dependent benthic food chain; (ii) red algae-dependent benthic food chain; and (iii) planktonic food chain. Brown algae and red algae likely play different roles with respect to carbon sources in the habitat. Conventional fractionation values indicated that the abalone H. diversicolor (δ13C = −12.4 ± 1.0‰, δ15N = 9.3 ± 0.5‰) feeds on the lamina of Undaria pinnatifida during juvenile and adult stages (8.0–65.6 mm shell length). Stable isotope signatures suggested that the juveniles of other abalone species as well as some amphipods and a sea cucumber Holothuria decorata are competitors of H. diversicolor , whereas some Muricidae gastropods such as Thais bronni and Ergalatax contractus are predators. The isotopic differences among macroalgal species and the subsequent transfer to consumers indicate that stable isotopic analysis is an effective means of studying food webs in an open rocky shore community with little influence from external primary production such as terrestrial vegetation.  相似文献
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