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ABSTRACT:   Predation by invertebrates may be one of the major factors influencing the mortality of released flounder juveniles in the field. We developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technique for the detection of Japanese flounder material from the gut contents of potential predators in the field. The PCR primers used here are flounder specific and encompass a 153 bp region from the right domain of the mitochondrial control region. With these oligonucleotide primers, PCR reactions yielded specific amplification products from the gut contents of some putative predators, including Matuta lunaris , Portunus gladiator , Sepioteuthis lessoniana , Suggrundus meerdervoorti , Platycephalus sp. and Rhyncopelates oxyrhynchus . Many animals with gut contents of unidentified fish material showed indication of predation on the flounder after release of hatchery reared flounder juveniles. The technique developed in the present study is useful not only for the survey of predation on the flounder by known species, but also for the search for novel potential predatory species in the field.  相似文献
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An automatic fishing machine based on acoustic conditioning was developed and tested in a reservoir. The floating fishing machine is remotely and automatically controlled to operate an underwater speaker, a feeder and underwater cameras that monitor fish behavior in real time. An open net pen installed under the system can be automatically closed to capture gathering fish. The dynamics of fish populations in the open net pen was monitored and discussed. Fish were conditioned to associate an acoustic signal with food by classical conditioning. Periodic retraining was used to reinforce the conditioned behavior of fish freely swimming in the reservoir. Fish were captured by calling them to the fishing machine using the acoustic signal and automatically closing the net pen around them: 2.5 times more fish were captured in such capture events than in control events, in which the net pen was automatically closed without calling the fish.  相似文献
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Vaccination of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon was conducted in order to investigate if immuno-prophylactic measures could improve their survival. Fish were either vaccinated by bath or injection. A total of 66 000 fish were reared in fresh water at a hatchery on the island of Bornholm and at the presmolt stage were separated in three groups each comprising of 22 000 fish. One group was vaccinated intraperitoneally with a polyvalent vaccine (containing killed Vibrio anguillarum serotype O1 and O2, Yersinia ruckeri and Aeromonas salmonicida ). A second group was bath vaccinated with the corresponding vaccine-components and the third group was used as a non-vaccinated control. One month after vaccination these groups were allocated to three separate net-pens located 500 m from the coastline of the island. After 4 months in the net-pens, 1000 fish from each cage were tagged with Carlin-tags below the dorsal fin. The fish were then released for a migration period in the Baltic Sea. Following a sea period of 40 months (45 months post-vaccination), the recapture rates of the groups were calculated from the returned tags from fishermen. Recapture of the injection vaccinated group was significantly higher (25%) compared with the bath vaccinated fish (14.7%) and the control group (16.8%).  相似文献
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The migratory behaviour of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., was analysed by radio-telemetry in the River Gudenaa, Denmark. The main objectives were to: (1) estimate mortality of returning adults through the fjord; (2) observe rate of progression and migratory pattern in the fjord and river; and (3) record whether spawning occurs in the river. Forty-two returning salmon (19 males and 23 females of total body length from 60–97 cm) reared and released as smolts, were caught and equipped with external radio transmitters in the outer estuary of the River Gudenaa in 1994 and 1995. Of the tagged salmon, 18 (43%) were caught in the estuary, four (10%) were not recorded after release and 20 (47%) entered the river. The mean rate of progression through the fjord was 7.6 km d−1 (range 1.4–18.2) in 1994 and 5.4 km  d−1 (range 1.6–17.1) in 1995. Eleven salmon were alive at the onset of the spawning period. Eight were retrieved dead from the river during or after the spawning period; four with empty gonads assumed to be successful spawners, and four with intact gonads. In 1994, unsuccessful spawners (found dead with intact gonads) entered the river earlier and had a longer total migration distance in the river compared to successful spawners. This suggests that spawning success of sea-ranched salmon is associated with time of river entry and river migration length.  相似文献
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An automatic fishing machine based on acoustic conditioning was developed and tested in a reservoir. The floating fishing machine is remotely and automatically controlled to operate an underwater speaker, a feeder and underwater cameras that monitor fish behavior in real time. An open net pen installed under the system can be automatically closed to capture gathering fish. The dynamics of fish populations in the open net pen was monitored and discussed. Fish were conditioned to associate an acoustic signal with food by classical conditioning. Periodic retraining was used to reinforce the conditioned behavior of fish freely swimming in the reservoir. Fish were captured by calling them to the fishing machine using the acoustic signal and automatically closing the net pen around them: 2.5 times more fish were captured in such capture events than in control events, in which the net pen was automatically closed without calling the fish.  相似文献
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气泡幕可作为海洋牧场鱼群控制的技术手段之一。本研究通过改变气泡幕在水槽中的相对位置和试验许氏平鲉( Sebastes schlegeli)的密度来观察许氏平鲉的行为反应,运用了观察法、对照试验法和控制变量法探究了气泡幕对不同密度下的许氏平鲉的阻拦效果。结果显示:1)试验鱼20尾时,气泡幕的位置分别设置在矩形水槽长的1/4、1/2和3/4处(鱼的密度为12.52、6.26、4.17尾/m2),阻拦率分别达到了98.2%、88.4%和92.9%,阻拦效果明显。2)气泡幕设置在水槽长度方向的1/2处,试验鱼分别为5尾、10尾、15尾和20尾时,气泡幕阻拦率分别达到了100%、85.7%、100%和88.4%(鱼群密度分别为1.56、3.12、4.69、6.26尾/m2),阻拦效果良好。3)由于阻拦率较高,试验鱼群密度和阻拦效率没有明显的关系。本研究结果可为我国投放许氏平鲉的海洋牧场鱼群控制技术以及取水口拦鱼技术提供参考。  相似文献
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人工鱼礁是实现海洋牧场建设、海域生态调控和海洋生境修复的主要手段之一。人工鱼礁的聚鱼效果主要取决于礁体建造材料、结构造型、流体力学特征及礁体布局等因素。总结了国内外人工鱼礁工程技术的发展历程,阐述了我国人工鱼礁发展存在的问题。通过查阅文献资料,总结了礁体造型和设计方面的研究进展,主要包括:现有人工鱼礁礁体材料的优、缺点,新型复合材料应用空间等;主要礁体构型及现有设计方法;采用流体力学模型试验和数值计算,开展礁体水动力学行为研究的进展;人工诱导流场和人工鱼礁布局主要方法。结合我国人工鱼礁现状,提出人工鱼礁设计与应用的发展趋势和重点研究方向,以期为我国人工鱼礁建造和升级提供参考。  相似文献
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The transport of juvenile sea cucumbers to grow‐out sites is problematic as they are prone to damage and mortality. The response of juvenile Australostichopus mollis to simulated transport conditions with and without seawater for different periods of time (2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h) at different temperatures was evaluated in this study. Sea cucumbers were placed in plastic bags with seawater or wrapped in a seawater‐soaked cloth. Monitoring of evisceration, skin lesions, feeding activity and survival was used to evaluate the success of transportation. The juveniles of this species can withstand being without seawater for up to 8 h with no consequences to their survival and feeding activity. Complete immersion of the juveniles in seawater was found to be the only option for transportation over longer periods, but preventive measures should be taken to avoid detrimental levels of temperature, oxygen and pH. Overall, the existing constraints to moving juvenile sea cucumbers to grow‐out sites can be overcome through preventing desiccation during short‐term transport without seawater, and by the control of temperature for long‐term transportation with seawater. The results suggest that in juvenile sea cucumbers, feeding activity and the presence of skin lesions are more sensitive indicators of the success of transport than evisceration and survival.  相似文献
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