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Coastal marine and estuarine ecosystems are highly productive and serve a nursery function for important fisheries species. They also suffer some of the highest rates of degradation from human impacts of any ecosystems. Identifying and valuing nursery habitats is a critical part of their conservation, but current assessment practices typically take a static approach by considering habitats as individual and homogeneous entities. Here, we review current definitions of nursery habitat and propose a novel approach for assigning nursery areas for mobile fauna that incorporates critical ecological habitat linkages. We introduce the term ‘seascape nurseries’, which conceptualizes a nursery as a spatially explicit seascape consisting of multiple mosaics of habitat patches that are functionally connected. Hotspots of animal abundances/productivity identify the core area of a habitat mosaic, which is spatially constrained by the home ranges of its occupants. Migration pathways connecting such hotspots at larger spatial and temporal scales, through ontogenetic habitat shifts or inshore–offshore migrations, should be identified and incorporated. The proposed approach provides a realistic step forward in the identification and management of critical coastal areas, especially in situations where large habitat units or entire water bodies cannot be protected as a whole due to socio‐economic, practical or other considerations.  相似文献
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Abstract This study examined habitat use patterns of newly settled spotted seatrout Cynoscion nebulosus (Cuvier) across several Gulf of Mexico estuaries. Intensive sampling using an epibenthic sled was conducted in three Texas bays and among three potential habitat types. A long‐term data set (1982 to 1997) from the National Marine Fisheries Service was also used to examine C. nebulosus habitat use patterns in both marsh and seagrass‐dominated bay systems for broad regional comparisons along the north‐western Gulf of Mexico. Vegetated habitat types such as seagrass and marsh supported the highest densities and use was dependent upon availability of particular vegetated habitat types. In laboratory mesocosm experiments, both wild‐caught and hatchery‐reared C. nebulosus, showed strong selection for structured and vegetated habitat types. These field and laboratory results suggest that seagrass meadows and marshes may be functioning as important habitat for C. nebulosus in Gulf of Mexico, and other habitat types such as oyster reef need further evaluation.  相似文献
3.
  • 1. Many turtle species frequently suffer major injuries due to attempted predation or anthropogenic factors. Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) are one species known to be affected by anthropogenic activity, but little is known about the causes of injuries. In declining diamondback terrapin populations, learning more about causes and results of injuries can be helpful in developing sound management plans.
  • 2. Patterns of limb loss and major shell injuries were examined in a population of terrapins studied for 24 years at Kiawah Island, South Carolina to infer the causes and effects of injuries and possible predators on terrapins.
  • 3. The rate of shell injuries increased temporally, possibly as a result of increased watercraft activity. Because no differences in rates of limb loss were found between males and females, limb loss probably results from aquatic encounters (i.e. limb loss does not appear to be the result of terrestrial predation during nesting). Furthermore, males experienced reduced body condition when injured, and terrapins with a major injury had lower survivorship than uninjured terrapins.
  • 4. Therefore, in addition to reducing sources of mortality and protecting nesting habitat, measures to protect terrapins from watercraft activity may increase the survivorship of adult terrapins.
Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
4.
  • 1. During a study of five artificial brackish ponds situated in Doñana Natural Park and the Guadalquivir delta between July 2001 and June 2002, a total of six copepod species (two calanoids, three cyclopoids and one harpacticoid) were recorded. All of them are typical of brackish or estuarine habitats.
  • 2. The estuarine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa (originally from North America) was present in all the ponds studied. This exotic species has been found previously in European estuaries, but has not previously been recorded from artificial wetlands.
  • 3. Both the relative and absolute abundance of the species varied significantly among months and ponds. A. tonsa was most abundant during autumn and spring, while Calanipeda aquae‐dulcis was most abundant in summer. This seasonal pattern of the copepod community composition was different from that reported in studies from other European estuaries or wetlands.
  • 4. The invasion by and dominance of A. tonsa in the area of Doñana Natural Park has important implications for the conservation of the diverse native zooplankton fauna in the natural marshes of the adjacent Doñana National Park, which includes endemic species.
Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
5.
为了解滨海潮间带盐沼湿地翅碱蓬生长的土壤环境,2013年7月~8月采集辽宁盘锦、辽宁庄河、天津、山东东营及江苏连云港5个不同纬度典型滨海翅碱蓬生长区域土壤,研究了其理化特征。结果表明,翅碱蓬可生长的我国滨海潮间带湿地土壤含盐量(2.5±0.5)g/kg~(19.0±6.1)g/kg、氯离子含量(1.16±0.04)g/kg~(11.27±0.3.43)g/kg、pH (7.05±0.01)~(8.96±0.01)、碱度(3.56±0.59)mmol/kg~(8.78±0.78)mmol/kg、全碳含量(7.70±1.84)mg/kg~(21.73±4.11)mg/kg,全氮含量(0.36±0.03)mg/kg~(0.87±0.04)mg/kg、无机氮含量(1.95±0.95)mg/kg~(16.10±1.57)mg/kg、速效磷含量(5.26±0.33)mg/kg~(39.98±0.61)mg/kg、速效钾含量(0.53±0.19)mg/kg~(1.77±0.01)mg/kg,其中铵氮含量(1.60±0.58)mg/kg~(8.76±0.16)mg/kg、亚硝酸盐氮含量(0.01±0.00)mg/kg~(0.11±0.00)mg/kg、硝酸盐氮含量(1.00±0.20)mg/kg~(2.54±1.09)mg/kg。土壤N:P比平均值为0.80±0.25、N:K比平均值为17.77±6.08、P:K比平均值为26.90±4.67;TC:TN比平均值为26.50±4.67。在符合这些土壤特征的滨海潮间带光滩可采用翅碱蓬进行生态修复。  相似文献
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