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1.
黄河和小清河主要污染物入海量的估算   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
黄河和小清河入海径流量从1998~2002年间呈下降趋势。黄河入海径流量1998年为107.34亿m^3,2002年下降到41.57亿m^3;小清河入海径流量从1998年的4亿m^3余下降到2002年的1亿m^3余。黄河平均年CODmn、氨氮、硝酸盐、亚硝酸盐及挥发酚入海总量为44322t,最高年份达到67336t,其中CODmn和硝酸盐的入海量起主导作用,约占年平均总量的93.8%。小清河平均年CODmn、氨氮、硝酸盐、亚硝酸盐及挥发酚入海总量为17017t,最高年份达到24314t,其中CODmn和氨氮的入海量起主导作用,约占年平均总量的98.8%。黄河与小清河比较,黄河年平均CODmn、氨氮、硝酸盐、亚硝酸盐及挥发酚入海量是小清河的1.83倍,而径流量是小清河的21.48倍。可看出小清河径流中CODmn、氨氮、硝酸盐、亚硝酸盐及挥发酚的浓度要比黄河高10多倍。  相似文献
2.
Time series analyses (Box–Jenkins models) were used to study the influence of river runoff and wind mixing index on the productivity of the two most abundant species of small pelagic fish exploited in waters surrounding the Ebre (Ebro) River continental shelf (north‐western Mediterranean): anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus). River flow and wind were selected because they are known to enhance fertilization and local planktonic production, thus being crucial for the survival of fish larvae. Time series of the two environmental variables and landings of the two species were analysed to extract the trend and seasonality. All series displayed important seasonal and interannual fluctuations. In the long term, landings of anchovy declined while those of sardine increased. At the seasonal scale, landings of anchovy peaked during spring/summer while those of sardine peaked during spring and autumn. Seasonality in landings of anchovy was stronger than in sardine. Concerning the environmental series, monthly average Ebre runoff showed a progressive decline from 1960 until the late 1980s, and the wind mixing index was highest during 1994–96. Within the annual cycle, the minimum river flow occurs from July to October and the wind mixing peaks in winter (December–April, excluding January). The results of the analyses showed a significant correlation between monthly landings of anchovy and freshwater input of the Ebre River during the spawning season of this species (April–August), with a time lag of 12 months. In contrast, monthly landings of sardine were significantly positively correlated with the wind mixing index during the spawning season of this species (November–March), with a lag of 18 months. The results provide evidence of the influence of riverine inputs and wind mixing on the productivity of small pelagic fish in the north‐western Mediterranean. The time lags obtained in the relationships stress the importance of river runoff and wind mixing for the early stages of anchovy and sardine, respectively, and their impact on recruitment.  相似文献
3.
长江径流对河口及邻近海区渔业影响的初步研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:4  
根据对近年调查资料的分析,本文试就长江径流变化对邻近海区理化环境的影响、对河口及邻近海区的浮游动物的数量分布以及渔业的影响等方面进行了讨论。长江径流的变化关系到邻近海区温、盐度和冲淡水的分布,并且存在着较强的相关;不少经济鱼类的渔场正位于浮游动物总生物量高区,而近海浮游动物总生物量与长江径流量之间有着显著的正相关关系;径流量的变化不仅改变渔场位置,而且影响海区渔获量的变化。文中着重讨论了长江口、舟山和鱼山渔场的带鱼、鲐鲹鱼的分布,渔场形成,渔获量的大小与径流量关系.  相似文献
4.
黄土区典型小流域降水变化下的水沙响应研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
定量描述降雨的变化规律是研究流域水文生态过程的基础,研究降水变化下的水沙响应,为区域水土保持规划提供依据。本文以马家沟流域1975~2006年降雨过程资料 为依托,分析了流域内降雨年际、年内分布规律、侵蚀性降雨量。流域径流量及产沙量采用目前国内外应用比较广泛的SWAT分布式水文模型模拟得出。研究结果表明,产生侵蚀降雨的次数占总降雨次数的15%,侵蚀性降雨量占总降雨量的62%,尽管产生侵蚀的降雨次数占总降雨次数的比例较小,但产生侵蚀的雨量占总降雨量却超过50%,侵蚀性降雨的强度大。在年尺度上,马家沟流域的径流量和产沙量随着降雨量的增加都有不同程度的增加。在丰水年径流量和产沙量普遍较大,在枯水年径流量和产沙量也普遍较小。产沙量主要集中在6~9月,以7~8月的产沙量最大,平均占年产沙量的70%左右,幅度变化大于径流量的变化。黄土高原生态建设及淤地坝建设工程的实施,增加了流域林草面积。通过林草拦截降雨、缓滞水流、保护地表,在一定范围减少了流域径流总量和泥沙量。  相似文献
5.
Penaeid shrimp fisheries are an important source of income for the fishing communities that live in estuarine zones around the world. Off Buenaventura, the habitat of the western white shrimp (Litopenaeus occidentalis) is subject to high precipitation associated with the intertropical convergence zone, contributions from numerous short rivers descending from the Andes Mountains, and seasonal alternations in Trade Winds directions responsible for the upwelling in the Panama Bight. This work analyzes the relationship of precipitation, the San Juan River runoff, and sea level height with Litopenaeus occidentalis abundance in fishing areas between 1968 and 1989. The results indicate that precipitation is significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with the catch per unit effort on a monthly scale with a lag of approximately 1 calendar year but the inclusion of the data in a transfer function model does not improve considerably the forecasting power of a simpler autoregressive moving average model of the catch per unit effort. On an annual scale, the catch per unit effort for white shrimp depends significantly [r2 = 0.36, p (corrected for autocorrelation)  0.01] on the precipitation that fell the previous December, whereas the residuals of this regression are significantly associated with variations of mean sea level between January and March (the upwelling season in the Panama Bight) of the current year at Buenaventura (r2 = 0.61, p (corrected for autocorrelation)  0.01). The inclusion of these two variables in a multiple linear regression model accounted for a substantial proportion of the total annual variance of the mean CPUE (r2 = 0.54), suggesting that freshwater contributions (lower salinities) and offshore transport during the main settlement period of postlarvae in the estuaries play a significant role in determining the strength of the cohorts recruited in the fishing areas. The industrial fishing yield decreased sharply after the 1982–1983 El Niño event. However, a high percentage of this change can be explained not by invoking El Niño effects but by a decreasing tendency of precipitation and offshore advection of early life stages between December and March, which took place on a multi-annual scale since the mid 1980s  相似文献
6.
A new method for assessing coastal environments using the reproduction potential of corals has been developed and examined in situ. Six assessment racks were deployed before the full moon of May 2006 at three sites located around a river outlet in Nagura Bay, Ishigaki Is. and at one control location in Sekisei Lagoon. Each rack was equipped with two marine blocks (MB) containing 378 holes, two cases of coral settlement devices (CSDs), each containing 120 CSDs, and a water temperature logger. Assessment was based on recruitment of Acropora due to mass spawning. After 4 months of deployment, the surface of assessment racks showed apparent biofouling depending on sites mainly by algal settlement on the surfaces. Almost all the holes of the MBs were partly occupied, mainly by turf algae. Nagura Bay was thought likely to be an “unhealthy” coral reef due to runoff from land. However, our assessment showed that there were 0.85 corals per CSD in the Bay, compared with 0.51 in Sekisei Lagoon, indicating that coral larvae supply is not the cause of the unhealthy condition of corals in the Nagura Bay.  相似文献
7.
本文使用 1960—1989 年期间浙江沿海各海洋站的海表温度、盐度、海洋水文断面观测以及长江径流量资料,据相关和谱分析方法分析了浙江沿海水域温、盐度和长江径流量的年际变化,其相互之间以及与渔况的关系。指出浙江沿海水域温、盐度、长江径流量和渔况均明显存在2.5年的周期变化。在2.5 年变化周期上,这些要素变化关系密切,部分地与El Nino/La Nina 事件相联系。每当浙江沿海水域海表温、盐度和长江径流量发生持续的异常,渔况必发生变化。可据温、盐度、长江径流量的长周期变化预测渔况的长周期变化。  相似文献
8.
根据资江流域干流主要控制站1956—2018年长时间序列径流量和输沙量数据,运用累积距平法、M-K法、集中度与集中期、小波分析法和均值差异T检验法等分析资江年径流量和输沙量的演变规律与特征,以期为资江流域水资源管理提供科学依据。结果表明:(1)趋势性,径流量分年代不同时段的变化率介于-18.2—25.8%之间,Z统计值为0.7058,表明径流量变化趋势不显著,而输沙量减少趋势较为明显,Z统计值为-5.0592,通过信度99%的显著性检验,说明减少趋势显著;(2)突变性,资水年径流量未发生明显的突变,而输沙量在1995年发生了突变;(3)周期性,资水径流存在第一主周期为26a的周期性,输沙量存在第一主周期为34a的周期性规律;(4)阶段性,资水径流量变化存在1956—1966, 1982—1988, 2002—2015年三个少水期,1967—1981, 1989—2001, 2016—2018年三个多水期,输沙量变化存在1956—1976, 1988—1997年两个多沙期,1977—1987, 1998—2018年两个少沙期;(5)集中度与集中期,径流量集中度为31.8%,输沙量集中度为73.7%,资水径流泥沙年内分配不均匀性特征明显。  相似文献
9.
水资源问题是制约我国社会经济可持续发展的重要因素。以张家口市清水河流域为研究区域,基于GIS构建流域的SWAT分布式水文模型,对影响径流模型结果的几个重要参数进行敏感性分析,并应用SWAT-CUP软件进行参数率定,利用2013-2016年的实测径流量进行模型验证,分别计算气候和土地利用变化对径流量的贡献率。结果表明,校准期的效率系数(NSE)为0.74,决定系数(R~2)为0.72;验证期的NSE系数为0.76,(R~2)为0.78。气温变化对径流量变化的贡献率为36.3%,而土地利用变化对径流量变化的贡献率为10.5%,气温和土地利用变化对径流量的变化均产生一定作用,但就作用大小而言,气候变化的作用相对较大。基于这些评价指标,可知SWAT模型在张家口清水河流域径流模拟中具有很好的可靠性和适用性,可以作为该流域水资源综合管理的支撑模型之一。  相似文献
10.
研究扎龙湿地及其上游乌裕尔河流域的景观格局演变,为湿地生态系统的管理与保护提供参考。利用研究区内1980-2018年5期土地利用遥感数据,运用GIS空间分析和主成分分析法,分析了区域景观格局时空变化及其驱动力。结果表明:(1)耕地面积从1980年的8629.648629km2增加至2018年的9527.909528km2;水域面积、居工地面积和盐碱地面积分别增加45.7446、57.9358和18.4618km2;林地面积、草地面积和沼泽地面积分别减少231.90232、742.33743和46.1646km2。1980-2000年研究区域其他土地利用类型转移为耕地的面积1035.861306km2,草地转移为其他土地利用类型的面积845.85846km2,其他土地利用类型面积总体变化不大。(2)景观格局指数不稳定,沼泽湿地面积是扎龙湿地的优势景观类型,耕地是乌裕尔河流域的优势景观类型,除优势景观类型外各种景观类型破碎化严重,景观丰富度越来越低。(3)景观格局的变化是自然气候和社会经济发展共同作用的结果,社会经济变化中的人均GDP、第一产业值以及城镇人口数量是导致整个研究区域湿地景观格局变化的主要驱动力;年均径流量与扎龙湿地内部草地的变化正相关。  相似文献
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