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1.
以初始体质量为(13.56±0.05)g的大黄鱼为对象,研究饲料中菜籽油替代鱼油对大黄鱼生长、肌肉脂肪酸组成和体色的影响。以鱼油组为对照组,用菜籽油分别替代25%、50%、75%、100%的鱼油,配制5种等氮等脂的实验饲料,在海水浮式网箱中进行为期8周的摄食生长实验。结果显示,饲料中不同水平菜籽油替代鱼油对大黄鱼的存活率(SR)和特定生长率(SGR)均无显著性影响;但饲料系数(FCR)随着替代水平的增加呈上升趋势,在100%替代组显著高于对照组。各处理组之间全鱼粗蛋白质、粗脂肪、灰分和水分含量均无显著性差异。肌肉中脂肪酸和饲料中脂肪酸线性关系分析表明,随着菜籽油替代鱼油水平的升高,大黄鱼肌肉中C18∶0、C18∶1、C18∶2n-6和C18∶3n-3含量不断增加,而C20∶4n-6和C22∶5n-3含量不断降低。肌肉中的饱和脂肪酸(SFA)含量随着替代水平的升高而升高,与饲料中SFA含量的变化趋势相反。菜籽油替代鱼油对大黄鱼腹部皮肤亮度值(L*)无显著性影响,但显著影响了背部皮肤L*值,100%替代组L*值显著高于对照组。对照组腹部皮肤红色值(a*)显著高于替代组;与腹部皮肤红色值相反,对照组背部皮肤红色值低于各替代组。菜籽油替代鱼油对大黄鱼背部和腹部皮肤黄色值(b*)均无显著性影响。研究表明,在本实验条件下,菜籽油替代鱼油对大黄鱼生长和体组成无显著影响,却显著影响了大黄鱼的肌肉脂肪酸组成和体色。  相似文献
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In order to investigate the impact of dietary lipid sources on mechanisms involved in lipid deposition, three groups of European seabass fingerlings with average initial body weight of 5.2 ± 1.0 g were fed three diets differing only by lipid source. These diets were: 100% anchovy oil (diet A), 40% anchovy oil-60% mix of vegetable oils (35% linseed, 15% palm, 10% rapeseed) (diet B) and 40% anchovy oil-60% mix of vegetable oils (24% linseed, 12% palm, 24% rapeseed) (diet C). After 64 weeks of rearing, when seabass reached the size of 160 g, the activity of lipogenic enzymes (fatty acid synthetase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme) in liver and of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in perivisceral adipose tissue, liver and white muscle were measured. Transport of lipid by lipoproteins was examined by determining plasma lipid composition and lipoprotein classes. Dietary oil source did not modify growth performance or lipid content of flesh and liver of seabass. Replacement of 60% of fish oil by the two mixtures of vegetable oils had no significant effect on hepatic lipogenesis and activity of LPL in liver and adipose tissue. Activity of LPL in white muscle was decreased in fish fed diet C compared to those fed diets A and B. Diets containing the mixture of vegetable oils led to lowered plasma, VLDL and LDL cholesterol levels compared to diet A.It is concluded that replacing 60% of fish oil by the two mixtures of vegetable oils in the feeds of European seabass fingerlings until they reach the size of 160 g has no marked effect on growth performance, lipogenesis and tissue lipid uptake but has a hypocholesterolemic effect.  相似文献
3.
The static or declining supply of fish oil from industrial fisheries demands the search of alternatives, such as plant (vegetable) oils, for diets in expanding marine aquaculture. Vegetable oils are rich in C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids but devoid of the n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids in fish oils. Previous studies, primarily with salmonids, have shown that including vegetable oils in their diets increased hepatocyte fatty acid desaturation. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of dietary partial substitution of fish oil (FO) with rapeseed oil (RO), linseed oil (LO) and olive oil (OO) on the desaturation /elongation and, -oxidation capacities of [1-14C]18:3n-3 in isolated hepatocytes from European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.), in a simultaneous combined assay. Fish were fed during 34 weeks with diets containing 100% FO, or RO, LO and OO, each included at 60% with the balance being met by FO, with no detrimental effect upon growth or survival. The highest total desaturation rates were found in hepatocytes of fish fed FO diet (0.52±0.08 pmol/h/mg protein) and OO diet (0.43±0.09 pmol/h/mg protein), which represented 3.2% and 2.7% of total [1-14C]18:3n-3 incorporated, respectively. In contrast, lowest desaturation rates were presented by hepatocytes of fish fed LO and RO diets (0.23±0.06 and 0.14±0.05 pmol/h/mg protein, respectively) represented 1.4% and 0.9% of total [1-14C]18:3n-3 incorporated, respectively. The rates of [1-14C]18:3n-3 β-oxidized were between 11-fold and 35-fold higher than desaturation. However, no significant differences were observed among β-oxidation activities in hepatocytes of fish fed any of the diets. The present study demonstrated that the European sea bass, as a carnivorous marine fish, presented a ‘marine’ fish pattern in the metabolism of 18:3n-3 to 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3. This species appeared to have all the enzymic activities necessary to produce 22:6n-3 but presented only extremely low rates of fatty acid bioconversion. Furthermore, nutritional regulation of hepatocyte fatty acid desaturation was minimal, and dietary vegetable oils did not increase desaturase activities, and in RO and LO treatments the activity was significantly lower. This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献
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Relative gene expression pattern of fatty acid transport proteins (FATP and cd36), intracellular fatty acid-binding proteins (FABP3, FABP10 and FABP11), β-oxidation-related genes [carnitine palmitoyl transferase II (CPTII), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β (PPARβ), acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX), long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (FACS), acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (dehydrogenase)] and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was assessed by RT-qPCR in Atlantic salmon muscle (red and white), liver, heart, myosepta and visceral fat. FABP11, a FABP isoform not previously described in Atlantic salmon, was highly expressed in visceral fat and myosepta and at the lower level in red muscle, white muscle, myosepta and heart. Furthermore, Atlantic salmon were fed either a diet containing fish oil (FO) or a complete replacement of FO with a vegetable oil blend (55% rapeseed oil, 30% palm oil and 15% linseed oil; VO) for the production cycle (27 months from start of feeding and until ∼4.5 kg mean weight). The expression of genes related to β-oxidation, fatty acid uptake and transport in the white muscle indicate ( n  = 3) significant down-regulation in VO fed Atlantic salmon and correlated with previously reported white muscle triacylglycerol stores and β-oxidation. FABP11 in visceral fat and myosepta was also down-regulated in VO fed fish.  相似文献
7.
分别以豆油、菜油、混合油(豆油:菜油=1:1)作为脂肪源,制成3种试验饲料,饲养体重为(27.64±2.29)g的鲫57 d,对试验鱼生长、生物学性状、体成分、血清生化指标进行测定,以综合评价豆油和菜油对鲫(Carassius auratus)的影响并进行比较.结果表明,菜油组和豆油组终末体重差异不显著,但均显著高于混合油组(P<0.05);饲料系数、增重率、绝对生长率各组间均无显著差异;内脏指数菜油组和豆油组差异不显著,但均高于混合油组(P<0.05);菜油组的含肉率显著低于混合油组(P<0.05),两者与豆油组差异不显著;菜油组的肝体比显著高于混合油组(P<0.05),两者与豆油组差异不显著;菜油组的肠体比和豆油组差异不显著,但均高于混合油组(P<0.05);肠长比各组间差异均不显著;菜油组的肥满度最高,混合油组最低,且组间差异显著(P<0.05);豆油组肌肉粗蛋白含量显著高于菜油组(P<0.05),与混合油组间差异不显著;混合油组肌肉粗灰分含量显著高于菜油组(P<0.05),与豆油组含差异显著;鱼体肌肉水分、粗脂肪、肝胰脏脂肪含量及血清生化指标各组间差异不显著.研究结果显示,豆油、菜油单独作为脂肪源对鲫生长、血清牛化性状的影响没有显著差异,但豆油能够改善鲫的体形,提高鲫的肌肉粗蛋白含量,而2种油脂混合使用则抑制鲫的生长,其原因可能与鲫的消化道发育受到抑制有关.建议生产中使用豆油为鲫的脂肪源,并避免同时使用豆油和菜油.  相似文献
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The clamworm Perinereis aibuhitensis is a commercially important polychaete in China, but knowledge about the nutritional demands of this species is limited. In this study, the effects of five lipid sources in the diet, namely fish oil (FO), soyabean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), cottonseed oil (CO) and mixed vegetable oil (MO), on growth, whole‐body composition and antioxidant parameters of juvenile P. aibuhitensis were evaluated. The results showed that clamworms fed the CO diet had higher specific growth rate (SGR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) than the other treatments. The accumulation of longer‐chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was observed in P. aibuhitensis, suggesting that P. aibuhitensis had the ability to elongate and desaturate PUFAs with 18C to form longer‐chain PUFAs. The values of n‐3/n‐6 in clamworms fed vegetable oil diets (ranged from 0.20 to 0.31) were much closer to the recommended values for human food compared with FO diet (2.47). Analysis of the antioxidant parameters revealed that clamworms fed the CO diet suffered lower peroxidation burden than those fed FO diet. These results suggested that cottonseed oil is a suitable lipid source for P. aibuhitensis feeds.  相似文献
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