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1.
益生菌对凡纳滨对虾生长和全虾营养组成的影响   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:3  
研究了芽孢杆菌制剂(Bacillus sp.,10^9CFU·g^-1)对凡纳滨对虾Litopenaeus vannamei(初始体重0.03g·尾^-1)生长性能、全虾营养成分和氨基酸的影响。7种试验饲料中芽孢杆菌制剂的添加量分别为0,0.5,1.0,1.5,2.0,2.5和3.0g·kg^-1饲料。芽孢杆菌制剂对凡纳滨对虾的成活率没有显著影响。摄食添加益生菌1.0和1.5g·kg^-1饲料的凡纳滨对虾的增重率高并且饲料系数低于对照组,特别是添加量为1.0g·kg^-1时,差异显著;然而,其它添加量并不存在显著性差异。添加益生菌对凡纳滨对虾全虾的水分、蛋白质和灰分含量的影响不显著;投喂添加益生菌1.0和1.5g·kg^-1饲料,脂肪含量高于对照组。饲料中添加益生菌可以改变凡纳滨对虾全虾中部分氨基酸的含量。  相似文献
2.
为探讨壳聚糖和益生菌是否通过甲状腺激素、皮质醇对异育银鲫的非特异免疫功能的进行调控,试验以基础饲料为对照,在基础饲料中分别添加0.50%壳聚糖A、0.50%壳聚糖B、0.20%益生菌以及0.50%壳聚糖A与0.05%益生菌的混合物制备试验饲料,饲养异育银鲫64d后,测定各组鱼外周血白细胞数量及其分类、白细胞吞噬活性、脾脏溶菌酶活性、脾脏淋巴细胞转化能力;同时采用放射免疫分析法测定异育银鲫血清中三碘甲腺原氨酸(T3)、甲状腺素(T4)及皮质醇含量。结果表明,饲料中添加壳聚糖、益生菌或其混合物对异育银鲫白细胞总数无显著影响,但是可显著提高异育银鲫外周血淋巴细胞数量、白细胞吞噬活性和脾脏溶菌酶活性(P<0.05),显著降低外周血多形核细胞数量(P<0.05)。除了壳聚糖A能够显著提高异育银鲫脾脏B淋巴细胞转化能力之外,其余试验组的脾脏T、B淋巴细胞转化能力均与对照组无显著差异(P>0.05)。同时发现饲料中添加壳聚糖、益生菌或其混合物可以显著提高异育银鲫血清中T3的含量(P<0.05)、显著降低异育银鲫血清中皮质醇的含量(P<0.05),除了壳聚糖B对异育银鲫血清中T4的含量无显著影响(P>0.05)之外,其余均可...  相似文献
3.
以稚参期仿刺参为研究对象,探讨了分离自仿刺参肠道的潜在益生菌在稚参养殖中的应用效果。采用16S rDNA序列分析法将3株潜在益生菌分别鉴定为Bacillus sp.(GSC-1)、Bacillus sp.(GSC-2)和Enterococcus sp.(GSC-3)。分别以103、105或107 CFU/mL的GSC-1、GSC-2、GSC-3或灿烂弧菌浸浴稚参以检验潜在益生菌对稚参期仿刺参的安全性,7 d后各潜在益生菌浸浴组的稚参成活率均高于同浓度的灿烂弧菌处理组;GSC-1和GSC-3在实验浓度下对稚参成活率无显著影响(P>0.05),可作为稚参的潜在益生菌;而107 CFU/mL GSC-2浸浴组稚参的成活率显著低于对照组(P<0.05),因此GSC-2不适合作为稚参的潜在益生菌。将潜在益生菌GSC-1和GSC-3以109 CFU/g的比例与鼠尾藻粉混合后饲养稚参20 d,潜在益生菌处理组的稚参成活率、特定生长率和变色率均高于对照组,其中GSC-1处理组稚参的成活率和变色率显著提高(P<0.05),GSC-3处理组稚参的成活率和特定生长率显著提高(P<0.05);与对照组相比,潜在益生菌GSC-1和GSC-3均有效增加了稚参的总菌数(P<0.05),GSC-1还有效降低了稚参的弧菌数(P<0.05);潜在益生菌GSC-1和GSC-3均可显著提高稚参体组织中的酚氧化酶和溶菌酶活力(P<0.05),GSC-1亦显著提高了其酸性磷酸酶和超氧化物歧化酶活力(P<0.05);GSC-1和GSC-3处理组稚参的抗灿烂弧菌感染能力均高于对照组,其中GSC-3显著降低了灿烂弧菌攻毒后稚参的死亡率(P<0.05)。综上所述,潜在益生菌GSC-1和GSC-3对稚参期刺参安全无毒,能够促进稚参的健康生长并提高其抗病能力,因而GSC-1和GSC-3均可作为益生菌应用于稚参养殖中。  相似文献
4.
芽孢杆菌对凡纳对虾生长和消化酶活性的影响   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:44  
选用豆粕、鱼粉、植物油、淀粉等原料配制基础料为对照组,在基础饲料中分别添加0.5%、1.0%、3.0%、5.0%芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)制剂为实验组。实验结果显示,凡纳对虾(Pennaus-vannamei)生长的2个阶段,实验组γSGR均大于对照组;生长第1阶段,组1与组2差异显著(P<0.05),与其余3组差异不显著(P>0.05),但各实验组之间差异均不明显(P>0.05);生长第2阶段,组1与组2之间γSGR差异极显著(P<0.01),与其余3组差异不明显(P>0.05),但各实验组间:组2与组4γSGR差异显著(P<0.05),而与组5γSGR差异极显著(P<0.01);对虾生长2个阶段的成活率实验组均略高于对照组,第1阶段的成活率明显高于第2阶段;芽孢杆菌对凡纳对虾2个生长阶段消化酶活性的影响表现出一定的相似性:实验组蛋白酶活性较淀粉酶、脂肪酶和纤维素酶高,且明显高于对照组,但各实验组间变化不明显。表明芽孢杆菌可以提高凡纳对虾消化酶活性和成活率,利于养分的消化吸收,促进生长。  相似文献
5.
The effects of two selected probiotics ( Pseudomonas synxantha and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ) on the specific growth rate (SGR), survival and immune parameters of juvenile western king prawns ( Penaeus latisulcatus ) were examined for 84 days. Pseudomonas synxantha and P. aeruginosa were either applied into the rearing medium or supplemented in the formulated feed at a concentration of 105 colony forming unit (CFU) mL−1 for each probiotic. The results showed that applications of the probiotics resulted in no significant difference ( P >0.05) in the SGR and survival of the prawns, but significantly decreased the food conversion ratios ( P <0.05) compared with the control where no probiotics were applied. The supplement of the probiotics with the formulated feed enhanced the probiotic numbers in the intestines of the prawns and low bacteria numbers in the haemolymph. The prawns were significantly ( P <0.05) healthier, as indicated by the immune response obtained when both probiotics were given in combination compared with when individual probiotics were used. When applied singly, P. aeruginosa resulted in a higher health status of the prawns compared with P. synxantha . Overall, equal combinations (105 CFU mL−1) and volumes of P. synxantha and P. aeruginosa used as a supplement in the formulated feed resulted in an improvement in the health of the juvenile western king prawns.  相似文献
6.
Disease problems have emerged as major constraints in aquaculture production. The prophylactic application of antibiotics is expensive and detrimental, i.e. selection of bacteria that are drug‐resistant or more virulent and the prevalence of drug residues in reared animals. Probiotics, which compete with bacterial pathogens for nutrients and/or inhibit the growth of pathogens, could be a valid alternative to the prophylactic application of chemicals. A mixture of specific Bacillus strains was designed following a research programme on the ability of numerous Bacillus strains to inhibit a range of pathogenic Vibrio strains, to grow under conditions prevailing in shrimp hatcheries and to degrade waste products. These strains were then included in bioassays and challenge tests in order to confirm the lack of toxin production and pathogenicity to humans, target organisms and the environment. Here, we report on the performance of a commercially available mixture of Bacillus strains (SANOLIFE® MIC), using data from Asian and Latin‐American hatcheries, with Penaeus monodon (Fabricius 1798) and Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone 1931). These results show that probiotics may be a suitable alternative to the prophylactic use of antibiotics. Obviously, minimizing the risk of vibriosis demands a multi‐disciplinary approach, including good hygiene and sanitation measures to reduce the input of potential pathogens, as well as a suitable farm management.  相似文献
7.
This study was conducted in order to evaluate the potential benefit of Bacillus pumilus and a commercial product (‘Organic Green') as a probiotic in the culture of the tilapia nilotica. Two doses of B. pumilus (106 and 1012 g−1 diet fed) and Organic Green (1 and 2 g kg−1 diet fed) were used as feed additives and administered for periods of 1 (groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively) and 2 (groups 6, 7, 8 and 9 respectively) months; group 1 served as a control. Each group consisted of 4 equal replicates of 320 fish. Body weight, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity, haematocrit values and total and differential leucocytic counts (TLC and DLC) were recorded in each group after 1 and 2 months. At the end of the experiment (8 months), survival and individual body weights were recorded. Challenge infections were performed after 1, 2 and 8 months using 0.5 mL culture suspension of a pathogenic reference strain of Aeromonas hydrophila (108 bacteria mL−1). The NBT values were increased significantly in all treated groups, except those administered B. pumillus (groups 3 and 6). There were significant changes in haematocrit values and TLC and DLCs in the treated groups, except group 3, which showed a significant increase in TLC, lymphocytes and monocytes. There was a statistically significant increase in the individual body weight in groups 5, 6, 8 and 9. The survival rates of all treatment groups were higher than the control group, the differences being statistically significant in groups 3 and 9. The challenge infection showed a variable response with the type and dose of treatment and the period of application. The highest relative levels of protection were an average increase of 62.5% after 1 month (groups 3 and 5), 55.6% after 2 months (group 7) and 15.8% after 8 months (groups 8 and 9). Overall, both types of probiotics induced a similar effect. The results show the potential of using probiotics to enhance immune and health status and improve disease resistance in Oreochromis niloticus, thereby improving growth performance. However, further extensive testing, including a full commercial cost–benefit analysis, is necessary before recommending their application in aquaculture.  相似文献
8.
Aquaculture has evolved as the fastest growing food-producing sector and developed as an important component in food security. To keep a sustainable growth pattern, health management strategies must go beyond antibiotics and chemotherapeutics, which create resistant bacteria and immunosuppression in the host. Besides development of drug resistant bacteria and pathogens, the adverse effect of antibiotics is caused by their influence on the aquatic microflora, and the retention of harmful residues in aquatic animals. On the other hand, the microbes with their unique structure and cell wall components can trigger immunity, and thus exposure plays an important role in the evolution. Microbial intervention through an environmentally friendly approach is an alternative method of health management. India is endowed with a bounty of varied climatic conditions, microbial diversity and fish fauna and aquaculture systems offering challenges in biological and environmental pursuits. Producing about 4.4% of world’s fish and ranking third in global fish production, India trades about 2.4% in global fish market with the annual export earning being over $1311 million. Use of microbes for beneficial purposes is increasingly recognized as a valuable input for sustainable and responsible aquaculture. Microbial intervention in aquaculture can be broadly water/environment based through bioaugmentation, biostimulation, biocontrol measures, or (to generate) host response through probiotics, immunostimulants, and vaccines. Also, application of molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nucleic acid techniques are making increasing inroads into aquatic microbiological research in India. This paper elucidates all these aspects of microbial intervention in aquaculture, high-lighting Indian research and accomplishments.  相似文献
9.
为研究饲料中添加益生菌对凡纳滨对虾抗副溶血弧菌感染能力和非特异性免疫基因表达水平的影响,以初体质量为(6.95±1.20)g的凡纳滨对虾为研究对象,在室内养殖箱进行3周的养殖实验和2周的副溶血弧菌人工感染实验;其中,对照组每日投喂普通商品饲料,实验组每日投喂在普通商品饲料中添加地衣芽孢杆菌、枯草芽孢杆菌、地衣芽孢杆菌/枯草芽孢杆菌(1:1)配制成的3组实验饲料,实验饲料中益生菌的终浓度为107 cfu/g。并采用实时荧光定量RT-PCR方法,对保护率最高的地衣芽孢杆菌/枯草芽孢杆菌实验组进行凡纳滨对虾相关免疫基因表达水平的分析。实验结果表明,在饲料中添加单一益生菌或复合益生菌均可显著提高对虾抗副溶血弧菌感染的能力(P<0.05),且复合益生菌的保护效果更佳,其相对免疫保护率为31.11%。感染副溶血弧菌后,地衣芽孢杆菌+枯草芽孢杆菌实验组凡纳滨对虾血淋巴中的先天免疫缺陷基因(innate immune deficiency gene,IMD)、对虾素3a分子(penaiedin 3a)、酚氧化酶原(prophenoloxidase,proPO)、溶菌酶(Lysozyme,LZM)和甲壳素Crustin的mRNA的相对表达量均显著上调,且分别在18~24 h达到最大值。实验结果提示:饲料中添加芽孢杆菌可有效提高凡纳滨对虾抗副溶血弧菌感染的能力,这种能力的提高可能是通过增加抗病相关基因的表达量实现的。  相似文献
10.
复合益生菌对草鱼养殖水体水质和菌群结构的影响   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
为研究草鱼养殖水体中添加复合益生菌水质调节剂对水体水质和菌群的调节作用,实验采用氮磷等指标监测水质,采用454焦磷酸盐测序方法分析菌群结构,结果显示,处理组的氨氮、亚硝酸盐氮和总氮浓度一直低于对照组,但差异不显著;处理组硝酸盐氮浓度低于对照组,且在18d下降了56.59%;处理组的总无机氮含量低于对照组,且在15d下降了28.75%.处理组正磷酸盐和总磷浓度略低于对照组,无显著差异.15 d水样的454焦磷酸盐测序结果与对照组相比,处理组菌群多样性更高,厚壁菌门和变形菌门分别减少了91.21%和21.75%,拟杆菌、放线菌和蓝细菌分别增加了288%、435%和848%.在变形菌门中,α-变形杆菌和β-变形杆菌分别比对照组提高了318%和18%,γ-变形杆菌比对照组降低了78.82%.研究表明,该复合益生菌具有一定水质调控功能,且能显著改变菌群结构.  相似文献
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