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1.
芽孢杆菌对凡纳对虾生长和消化酶活性的影响   总被引:44,自引:1,他引:43  
选用豆粕、鱼粉、植物油、淀粉等原料配制基础料为对照组,在基础饲料中分别添加0.5%、1.0%、3.0%、5.0%芽孢杆菌(Bacillus subtilis)制剂为实验组。实验结果显示,凡纳对虾(Pennaus-vannamei)生长的2个阶段,实验组γSGR均大于对照组;生长第1阶段,组1与组2差异显著(P<0.05),与其余3组差异不显著(P>0.05),但各实验组之间差异均不明显(P>0.05);生长第2阶段,组1与组2之间γSGR差异极显著(P<0.01),与其余3组差异不明显(P>0.05),但各实验组间:组2与组4γSGR差异显著(P<0.05),而与组5γSGR差异极显著(P<0.01);对虾生长2个阶段的成活率实验组均略高于对照组,第1阶段的成活率明显高于第2阶段;芽孢杆菌对凡纳对虾2个生长阶段消化酶活性的影响表现出一定的相似性:实验组蛋白酶活性较淀粉酶、脂肪酶和纤维素酶高,且明显高于对照组,但各实验组间变化不明显。表明芽孢杆菌可以提高凡纳对虾消化酶活性和成活率,利于养分的消化吸收,促进生长。  相似文献
2.
Lactic acid bacteria in fish: a review   总被引:39,自引:0,他引:39  
Einar Ring    Fran  ois-Joë  l Gatesoupe 《Aquaculture》1998,160(3-4):177-203
Fish are continuously exposed to a wide range of microorganisms present in the environment, and the microbiota of fish have been the subject of several reviews. This review evaluates lactic acid bacteria in fish, and focuses on the several investigations that have demonstrated that Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Carnobacterium belong to the normal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract in healthy fish. However, it is well known that the population level of lactic acid bacteria associated with the digestive tract is affected by nutritional and environmental factors like dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids, chromic oxide, stress and salinity. Pathogenic lactic acid bacteria such as Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Carnobacterium and Lactococcus have been detected from ascites, kidney, liver, heart and spleen. Some antibiotic treatments and vaccinations have been proposed to cure or prevent these diseases that seem, however, to spread with the development of fish culture. It has also been reported that some lactic acid bacteria isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of fish can act as probiotics. These candidates are able to colonise the gut, and act antagonistic against Gram-negative fish pathogens. These harmless bacteriocin-producing strains may reduce the need to use antibiotics in future aquaculture.  相似文献
3.
Probiotics in aquaculture   总被引:15,自引:0,他引:15  
4.
有益微生物对海水养虾池浮游生物生态特征的影响研究   总被引:15,自引:6,他引:9  
研究了有益微生物对海水虾池浮游生物生态特征的影响。通过对虾养殖系统中浮游动物与浮游植物进行为期3个月的监测,结果表明试验组虾池的浮游植物密度表现为前期低,中期迅速增长,后期达顶峰,并维持在70×106~160×106cell·L-1的水平,前期种类以硅藻类为主,后期则以绿藻类为主;同时试验池浮游动物的密度也保持稳定增长态势,并在养殖后期维持在顶峰水平,密度达到25×103~30×103ind·m-3,种类以广盐、适低盐的沿岸种为主,但优势种明显;对照池的浮游植物和浮游动物呈现前期低后期高的态势。其变化差异表现为对照组的浮游植物和浮游动物在后期的密度变动起伏较大,且出现较大比例的有害的兰藻类,而试验池的兰藻类只占较少的比例,说明芽孢杆菌群能抑制兰藻类的繁殖,促进有益藻类生长;浮游生物的多样性指数较低,低于自然海区,但种类均匀度则较高,与自然海区相当。  相似文献
5.
微生态制剂在甲壳动物养殖中的应用研究   总被引:14,自引:1,他引:13  
在甲壳动物养殖中使用微生态制剂取得良好效果。南美白对虾室内养殖GMA1组、GMA2组及DY-1组的养殖成活率分别为95%.79%、91.78%和88.00%,均高于对照组的81.67%,微生物及水化学指标也明显优于对照组;池塘养殖中国对虾45d,试验组和对照组对虾平均体长分别增长2.86cm和2.40cm;河蟹育苗试验组比对照组提高成活率27.78%,本文还对微生态制剂的作用机理和使用注意项等进行了论述。  相似文献
6.
多糖和益生菌对暗纹东方鲀免疫功能的调节   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
为了研究多糖、益生菌等免疫增强剂对暗纹东方的免疫调节作用,本试验随机将暗纹东方[(167.8±24.4)g]分为6组。其中阳性对照组为免疫功能低下组,投喂基础饲料、注射8mg.kg-1体重的环磷酰胺;阴性对照组为免疫功能正常组,投喂基础饲料、注射生理盐水;其余试验组分别用含有0.2%壳聚糖、0.1%益生菌、甘露聚糖与益生菌混合物、壳聚糖与益生菌混合物的饲料连续投喂30d,同时注射8mg.kg-1体重的环磷酰胺。测定各组暗纹东方的外周血白细胞数量及吞噬活性、肝胰脏溶菌酶活性、头肾与脾脏淋巴细胞转化、头肾与脾脏IFN-α含量、头肾与脾脏IgM含量进行免疫功能的比较。结果表明,多糖和益生菌对免疫功能低下的暗纹东方具有免疫调节作用。所检测的各项免疫指标均有不同程度的恢复,或处于免疫功能正常与环磷酰胺所致免疫抑制水平之间,或恢复至正常水平或超过正常水平。不同免疫增强剂对同一种免疫器官、免疫细胞或免疫分子的调节作用或同一种免疫增强剂对不同的免疫器官或免疫细胞或免疫分子的调节作用均存在差异。从整体效果看,在所研究的4种免疫增强剂中,甘露聚糖与益生菌混合物的免疫调节作用最弱。  相似文献
7.
养殖鳗鲡肠道益生菌的筛选   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9       下载免费PDF全文
樊海平 《水产学报》2006,30(1):97-102
从正常养殖的鳗鲡肠道中分离得到477株细菌,通过对常见病原菌的拮抗试验和产酶能力测试筛选出47株细菌。通过对鳗鲡饲料培养基的利用能力从中筛选出19株细菌,鉴定分类后选择7株可能的益生菌进行鱼粉分解试验,筛选得到2株细菌,即A40209CDC4和A31009NA。最后测定这2株细菌对欧洲鳗鲡的毒力和对鳗鲡饲料的表观消化率。结果显示,在急性毒性试验中,试验剂量的细菌对欧洲鳗鲡无毒力,且能有效地提高对饲料的利用率,表明筛选出的2株肠道益生菌A40209CDC4和A31009NA具有良好的开发和应用前景。  相似文献
8.
Probiotics for aquaculture are generally only selected by their ability to produce antimicrobial metabolites; however, attachment to intestinal mucus is important in order to remain within the gut of its host. Five candidate probiotics (AP1-AP5), isolated from the clownfish, Amphiprion percula (Lacepéde), were examined for their ability to attach to fish intestinal mucus and compete with two pathogens, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio alginolyticus. Two different radioactive isotopes were used to quantify competition between pathogens and probionts. Attachment of the pathogens was enhanced by the presence of the candidate probiotics. However, the addition of the candidate probiotics after the pathogens resulted in reduced pathogen attachment. Only AP5 caused lower attachment success of V. alginolyticus when added before the pathogen. When AP5 was added first, the average attachment change was 41% compared with 72% when added after V. alginolyticus, suggesting that the probiotic is displaced but that enhanced attachment of the pathogen does not occur. Conversely, when V. alginolyticus was added first, followed by AP5, attachment change was 37% while AP5 had 92% attachment change when added second. This implies that the pathogen was displaced by the candidate probiotic and therefore it appeared that, based on the ability of probiont AP5 to attach to mucus, the growth of the pathogen in the digestive tract might be suppressed by the candidate probiont's presence.  相似文献
9.
微生态制剂及其在水产养殖中的应用研究现状   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
论述了微生态制剂的种类、作用机理及其作为水质改良及饲料添加剂在水产养殖领域的应用现状。对微生态制剂在使用中的影响因子、存在问题以及发展趋势进行了初步分析。  相似文献
10.
ABSTRACT:   Effects of probiotics on growth, stress tolerance and non-specific immune response in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus were evaluated in a closed recirculating system. Survival and growth of flounder treated by supplying commercial probiotics either in the diet (the probiotic diet group), or into the rearing water (the water supply group), were higher compared to the untreated group (the control group). Water quality parameters, pH, NH4-N, NO2-N and PO4-P showed lower concentration in the probiotic diet group compared with the control group and the supply group. Plasma lysozyme activity in the probiotic diet group and the water supply group was significantly higher ( P  < 0.05) than that in the control group. In heat shock stress tests, flounder in the probiotics-treated groups showed greater heat tolerance (measured by 50% lethal time, LT50) than the control group. Pathogen challenge tests with Vibrio anguillarum (2 × 107 c.f.u./mL) resulted in significantly higher survival in the probiotics-treated groups than the control group. Results indicated that probiotics supplied in the rearing water and the diet of fish enhanced the stress tolerance and the non-specific immune system of Japanese flounder, providing them a higher resistance against stress conditions and pathogens.  相似文献
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