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1.
中国政府于1995年正式宣布在东海区实施伏季休渔制度,休渔范围为27°00′N~35°00′N海域,时间为每年的7月1日至8月31日;1998年将范围进一步扩大到26°00′~35°00′N海域;时间延长,定为每年的6月16日至9月15日,并在中国的南海和黄渤海全面推广伏季休渔制度。自该制度的贯彻执行以来,取得了显著的生态效益、经济效益和社会效益。本研究以东海区的主要经济鱼———带鱼(Trichiurus japonicus)为研究对象,应用Ricker动态综合模型,解析东海区实施3个月的伏季休渔效果,揭示在不同的开捕年龄(tc)与捕捞死亡系数(F)组合下对带鱼渔业资源保护和利用之间的规律。结果表明,在目前开捕年龄偏低、网目尺寸偏小和捕捞压力较大的现实状况下,东海区实施伏季休渔制度很有必要;在带鱼开捕年龄为0.5龄、年捕捞死亡系数为1.5~3的渔业格局下,实施3个月的伏季休渔制度后,其年平均资源量、渔获量和渔获平均体重的增幅分别达到57.8%~104%、22.2%~32.2%和32.5%~42.9%,但带鱼群体所提供的资源量水平、所获取的渔获量和渔获平均体重仍显偏低,对其合理利用尚需要进一步完善;若将开捕年龄从0.5龄提高到1龄,则年平均资源量、渔获量和渔获平均体重的增幅分别达到173%~356%、72%~101%和149%~187%。鉴于东海区总体渔业资源状况呈衰退之势,且中国尚未实施TAC渔业管理制度,建议目前继续实施伏季休渔制度,并把提高起捕规格、放大网目尺寸作为首选管理目标。[中国水产科学,2006,13(1):85-91]  相似文献
2.
Climate change and the future for coral reef fishes   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Climate change will impact coral-reef fishes through effects on individual performance, trophic linkages, recruitment dynamics, population connectivity and other ecosystem processes. The most immediate impacts will be a loss of diversity and changes to fish community composition as a result of coral bleaching. Coral-dependent fishes suffer the most rapid population declines as coral is lost; however, many other species will exhibit long-term declines due to loss of settlement habitat and erosion of habitat structural complexity. Increased ocean temperature will affect the physiological performance and behaviour of coral reef fishes, especially during their early life history. Small temperature increases might favour larval development, but this could be counteracted by negative effects on adult reproduction. Already variable recruitment will become even more unpredictable. This will make optimal harvest strategies for coral reef fisheries more difficult to determine and populations more susceptible to overfishing. A substantial number of species could exhibit range shifts, with implications for extinction risk of small-range species near the margins of reef development. There are critical gaps in our knowledge of how climate change will affect tropical marine fishes. Predictions are often based on temperate examples, which may be inappropriate for tropical species. Improved projections of how ocean currents and primary productivity will change are needed to better predict how reef fish population dynamics and connectivity patterns will change. Finally, the potential for adaptation to climate change needs more attention. Many coral reef fishes have geographical ranges spanning a wide temperature gradient and some have short generation times. These characteristics are conducive to acclimation or local adaptation to climate change and provide hope that the more resilient species will persist if immediate action is taken to stabilize Earth's climate.  相似文献
3.
Several mechanisms for self‐enhancing feedback instabilities in marine ecosystems are identified and briefly elaborated. It appears that adverse phases of operation may be abruptly triggered by explosive breakouts in abundance of one or more previously suppressed populations. Moreover, an evident capacity of marine organisms to accomplish extensive geographic habitat expansions may expand and perpetuate a breakout event. This set of conceptual elements provides a framework for interpretation of a sequence of events that has occurred in the Northern Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (off south‐western Africa). This history can illustrate how multiple feedback loops might interact with one another in unanticipated and quite malignant ways, leading not only to collapse of customary resource stocks but also to degradation of the ecosystem to such an extent that disruption of customary goods and services may go beyond fisheries alone to adversely affect other major global ecosystem concerns (e.g. proliferations of jellyfish and other slimy, stingy, toxic and/or noxious organisms, perhaps even climate change itself, etc.). The wisdom of management interventions designed to interrupt an adverse mode of feedback operation is pondered. Research pathways are proposed that may lead to improved insights needed: (i) to avoid potential ‘triggers’ that might set adverse phases of feedback loop operation into motion; and (ii) to diagnose and properly evaluate plausible actions to reverse adverse phases of feedback operation that might already have been set in motion. These pathways include the drawing of inferences from available ‘quasi‐experiments’ produced either by short‐term climatic variation or inadvertently in the course of biased exploitation practices, and inter‐regional applications of the comparative method of science.  相似文献
4.
太湖湖鲚种群数量变动及合理利用的研究   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:12  
唐渝 《水产学报》1987,11(1):61-73
本文根据1982年4月至1984年4月所采集的3964尾湖鲚样本,进行生长与死亡、不同体长的摄食习性的研究。研究表明,湖鲚的自然死亡系数M为0.52,捕捞死亡系数F为2.66,总死亡系数Z为3.18,生长的拐点年龄为2.548。体长达131mm时,饵料中开始出现经济鱼虾;体长达170mm时,饵料中的经济鱼虾比重急剧上升,出现率为50—100%,经济鱼虾饱和分指数占饱和总指数85—99%,其中白虾约占40%—94%。 本文应用Schaofer模式、Beverton-Holt模式计算得出:湖鲚开捕年龄为0.5龄时太湖最大持续渔获量为652.5万公斤,最适捕捞努力量为3190000(日,吨位)。综合分析认为合理利用湖鲚资源的最佳开捕年龄应为1.5龄,即使F不变,渔获量也将上升三倍。  相似文献
5.
秘鲁鳀资源变动及与海洋环境要素的关系研究进展   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
秘鲁鳀(Engraulis ringens)是一种小型中上层鱼类.作为重要的商业性鱼类之一,秘鲁鳀的捕捞产业曾形成了世界上最大的单鱼种渔业,但其产量的年间差异非常大,上升流流场结构变化是其产量变化的重要影响因素.上升流对秘鲁鳀捕捞量的作用机制可归纳为低纬度的地理位置、适宜的水温结构、低溶解氧、高能量传递效率的食物网以及复杂的海洋环境要素变化五个方面.秘鲁鳀渔业生物学的多个方面都显著地受到了海洋环境变化的影响.此外,与气候相关的大尺度海洋生态系统周期性变化(regime shift)也影响到了秘鲁鳀的资源变动.本研究认为,今后在加强对长时间尺度生态系统周期性变化的研究同时,也应注重结合海洋环境变化、捕捞因素及种群的内部动力过程这三者之间的关系,结合基于个体的海洋动力学,建立秘鲁鳀资源评估及预测的模型,为合理开发和管理提供基础.  相似文献
6.
基于年龄结构的中华鲟资源量估算方法   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
根据长江中的中华鲟亲鱼捕捞数据的年龄结构,推算不同年龄段中华鲟亲鱼进入长江参与繁殖的占比,首次将长江和海洋中的中华鲟同时纳入估算模型进行计算,构建了一套估算中华鲟资源量的新方法。稳态计算结果显示,在葛洲坝截流前,长江中每年有效补充量为1 882尾,长江和海洋中育龄(雌:13~34龄,雄:8~27龄)总资源量为32 260尾,其中雄鱼15 310尾,雌鱼16 950尾,每年在长江中参与繁殖的中华鲟新老股群之和(1 727尾)占总资源量的比例约5%。计算得出葛洲坝截流后长江中的中华鲟产卵繁殖容量仅为截流前的6.5%,1981年葛洲坝截留造成68%~80%的1980年老股群被阻隔在上游。结合葛洲坝截流后的捕捞数据推算了1981年后长江和海洋中的中华鲟资源量变迁过程。计算结果与捕捞数据反映的趋势一致,证明模型可靠有效。研究表明,葛洲坝截流后,随着捕捞量的减少,长江中的繁殖群体数量上升,1990年左右达到峰值(约2 200尾),随后迅速下降,2010年为170尾左右。葛洲坝截流后中华鲟产卵繁殖环境容量的大幅下降是近年来中华鲟资源量急剧下降的重要原因。  相似文献
7.
实验室条件下麦穗鱼群体动态结构的表达   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
为了探究麦穗鱼群体动态结构的特征参数,以及这些参数可能反映的行为机理,本实验使用2台摄像机从俯视和侧视2个方向同时拍摄由13尾麦穗鱼组成的群体,获取连续时间内麦穗鱼群体中各个体的三维位置数据,对个体间最近邻近距离、视角、转角变化量、个体游泳速度等参数进行分析。结果表明:麦穗鱼个体最近邻近距离多数处于0.5~2BL,偏好的最近邻近距离为0.6~0.8BL;麦穗鱼总是将最邻近的个体保持在本鱼80°视野范围内;避免碰撞时,个体鱼转角改变量为0~30°;在无人为干扰的自然环境下,个体鱼以0.75BL/s左右的速度配合其他个体保持运动速度一致性。实验观察证实,视觉对麦穗鱼个体间的分布起着关键性作用,此外麦穗鱼群体动态结构还受到个体状态(饱食与饥饿)的影响。  相似文献
8.
Abstract –  The consequences of individual behaviour to dynamics of populations has been a critical question in fish ecology, but linking the two has proven difficult. A modification of Sale's habitat selection model provides a conceptual linkage for relating resource availability and individual habitat selection to exploratory behaviour, emigration and population-level responses. Whole-population experiments with pupfish Cyprinodon macularius that linked all factors along this resource to population continuum lend support to this conceptual model, and illustrate that emigration may be much more common in fish populations than considered in most individual- or population-based models. Accommodating emigration can enhance the ecological appropriateness of behavioural experiments and increase confidence in extrapolation of experimental observations to population-level effects. New experimental designs and advancing technologies offer avenues for assessing population consequences of habitat selection and emigration by individual fish. Emigration often is the key linkage between individual behaviour and population responses, and greater understanding of the underlying factors affecting this often-overlooked demographic parameter could offer new approaches for management and conservation of fishes.  相似文献
9.
Due to the multitude of participants and a diverse range of fishing gear used freshwater fisheries are often managed using minimum size limits (MSL) rather than regulations of total fishing effort. However, a concern has arisen whether attempts to improve ecological sustainability of fisheries by increasing MSLs would induce undesired adaptations to selective fishing. We examined the ecological and evolutionary impacts of varying fishing mortality rates under varying MSLs, with and without stockings, in an age-, size-, and maturity-structured evolutionary model which was parameterized for the Lake Oulujärvi pikeperch, Sander lucioperca. We found that at the current level of harvesting (fishing mortality rate, F = 0.7) and stockings (430 000 year−1), and under the assumption of strongly density-dependent growth, the nation-wide MSL of 370 mm maximizes theoretical biomass yield in a deterministic model but does not prevent severe recruitment overfishing under further increased fishing pressures or stochasticity in recruitment success. The recently imposed, local MSL of 450 mm better ensures stable yields, and even increases them if individual growth is density-independent, but further increase of MSL to 500 mm would already reduce yield especially if there was discard mortality for undersized fish. Given density-dependent growth, equal survival between wild and stocked fish, and sustainable fishing mortality rate, stockings do not increase yield or significantly improve the stability of yields. Evolutionarily stable size at maturation decreases under strong fishing mortality, but increased MSLs reduce the magnitude of this undesired effect. Negatively size-dependent natural mortality was found to have a positive effect on the otherwise negative selection for length-at-age. Increased MSLs also reduce the total selection for decreased length-at-age. Our results support the intentions to increase MSLs in order to improve both ecological and evolutionary sustainability of recreational fisheries.  相似文献
10.
The perch population in Lake Höytiäinen was intensively fished to reduce the density of the population and hence also the predation pressure by perch on vendace larvae. A hypothesis suggests that this predation can prevent recovery of commercially important vendace stock from a state of low-density. In the 1990s the density of the perch population in Lake Höytiäinen has increased, while the vendace stock has been sparse. Intensive fishing was conducted by professional fishermen with a paired bottom trawl, seine net, hoop net and small fish traps and by recreational fishermen with small fish traps. The size of perch population during the intensive fishing period was studied by test fishing with multi-mesh gillnets and the Leslie method in which trawl YPUE was regressed on the cumulative yield. The results suggest that the population size clearly diminished in the area where the fishing pressure was strongest. YPUE of test fishing decreased ca. 30% whereas the Leslie method gave almost a decrease twice as large as that of the former. Mean weight of perch increased in the trawl and test fishing catches during the intensive fishing period. The most effective fishing gear was trawl (62% of the total yield), but importance of trap net fishing by recreational fishermen was also high as they caught 22% of the total yield.  相似文献
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