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为探究三峡库区汉丰湖入湖支流河岸带植物分布格局及其环境特征,2013年6月在4条主要入湖支流——南河、桃溪河、头道河和东河设置12个站点,从纵向分布格局(沿河岸带上游至下游)和侧向分布格局(沿水面到高地)开展调查。结果显示,共采集到维管束植物69科、155属、171种;其中禾本科、菊科和蔷薇科种类数较多,分别为19种、16种和9种,占总种数的11.1%、9.4%和5.3%,生活型以草本为主(68.4%),其次为灌木(12.9%);草本植物鲜重、盖度和高度均值依次为(1 951.6±3 076.2)g/m2、(79.9±34.7)%和(34.2±18.3)cm;重要值较大的植物主要有枫杨(Pterocarya stenoptera)、牛筋草(Eleusine indica)和金发草(Pogonatherum paniceum)。河岸带土壤容重、p H值、有机质、碱解氮、有效磷、有效钾的含量均值依次为(1.32±0.19)g/cm3、(7.91±0.38)、(18.22±21.45)g/kg、(60.58±68.67)mg/kg、(6.51±5.21)mg/kg和(59.42±34.33)mg/kg。典范对应分析(CCA)表明,影响河岸带植物重要值的环境因子主要是高程和土壤有机质。  相似文献
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  • 1. Long‐term studies are necessary to describe effects of restoration efforts on plant communities and invasive species in North American fen communities. In 1986, 1999 and 2000, wetland plant communities and abiotic factors were sampled in two fens in Ohio that were actively managed as a state nature preserve since 1986. The correlation between plant species and environmental conditions was examined in 1986 to 2000, and changes in woody plant cover were measured on aerial photographs from 1938 to 1997 to analyse long‐term effects of management practices.
  • 2. 142 vascular plant species and 32 bryophyte taxa were found in these rich fens, including 13 rare (i.e. state‐listed as endangered, threatened or potentially threatened) and 14 alien species. TWINSPAN analyses identified nine plant community types, and species distributions were correlated with several abiotic factors (groundwater depth, pH, soil organic content, distance from wetland edge and depth of peat). Communities along the wetland edge in deep peat had higher richness, more woody species, more alien species and fewer rare species than communities in areas near sources of flowing groundwater with more marl and less peat.
  • 3. There was little change in species richness, evenness, and Shannon's diversity from 1986 to 2000. However, plant species assemblages changed during the study, and changes were different in unmanipulated transects compared with those where habitat managers removed invasive woody plants. An aerial photograph analysis indicated that woody plant cover increased by about 1% each year during 1938 to 1997 despite current management efforts to remove invasive trees and shrubs. Additional strategies should be directed toward reducing shrub encroachment and invasive species while promoting rare species.
Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
3.
为揭示三峡水库消落区出露期间植物群落结构特征的季节性变化规律,于2017年4、6和98月,设置了15个调查样地,并根据高程将消落区分为145~155 m、156~165 m和166~175 m等3个区域,并设置未水淹区域(高程176~-185 m)为对照。结果表明,消落区出露时间显著影响着植物群落的组成,随着出露时间的延长,消落区植物群落优势种及其优势度变化规律因植物的生活型不同呈现出相反的变化规律。从4月至8月,优势植物狗牙根、牛鞭草、喜旱莲子草等多年生草本植物优势度下降,鬼针草、苍耳、醴肠、水蓼、野胡萝卜、狗尾草等一年生草本植物优势度增加。而未水淹区植物优势种及其优势度变化规律不会因生活型不同而表现出不同的规律,不同地点的植物群落优势种差异较大,相对来说艾蒿较为优势,其次为小飞蓬。高程也是影响植物群落特征的主要因子,消落区植物群落Shannon-Wiener指数、Margalef指数、Simpson指数、植物高度均值显著低于未水淹区域,随着高程的增加,Shannon-Wiener指数、Margalef指数、Simpson指数生物多样性指数及、植物高度均值呈增加趋势。三峡水库消落区之所以呈现出目前的植物群落分布特征,植物内在的适应机制包括植物本身的冬季耐水淹能力、夏季抗旱能力、抗病虫害能力以及植物的及其繁殖对策、种源扩散对策等是主因,而外界环境条件,包括消落区土层厚度、地形坡度、土壤基质氮磷等营养盐,以及受水淹持续时间、水淹深度、高程、消落区出露时间等是其主要驱动因子。  相似文献
4.
  1. Human activities have dramatically affected the status of river ecosystems, mainly by completely altering their natural dynamics. One of the main questions in this regard is: 'How do the origin (natural or artificial) and hydrology (lentic or lotic) of a riverine wetland influence its heterogeneity and the functional diversity of its vegetation?'
  2. To answer this question, data from 60 wetlands were collected along the Oglio River (northern Italy), a ~700 km2 ecosystem that is a typically over‐exploited plain. In order to perform a quantitative assessment of habitat heterogeneity and vegetation diversity, a hierarchical approach was applied to sample sites divided into four functional zones (FZs) according to distinct seasonal inundation patterns (persistently aquatic, riparian, seasonally emergent and lateral zones).
  3. Plant communities were randomly surveyed in each FZ by using five replicates of 4 m2 plots for aquatic and herbaceous plant communities and five replicates of 64 m2 plots for woody and shrub communities. Data on species cover were estimated by standard methods (geometric‐centered scale)
  4. The highest values of heterogeneity (FZs per site) and vegetation diversity (plant communities per site) were found in natural lentic sites, whereas natural lotic sites exhibited the lowest values. A clear dependence of plant community assets on wetland origin was detected, thereby confirming the close relationship between heterogeneity and vegetation diversity.
  5. Present results highlight the fundamental role played by natural sites in maintaining aquatic and wetland vegetation diversity in human‐altered riverscapes. The pivotal role of water level fluctuations in promoting the diversity and distribution of aquatic and hygrophilous vegetation also clearly emerges.
Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
5.
水文节律是河岸带植物群落演替的主要驱动因子,受水文节律影响的土壤理化特性也有可能逐渐改变周边植被,为了探究周期性淹没对三峡水库消落带植物群落及其生境状况的影响,2015年8月至9月,以三峡水库腹地万州段消落带为研究区域,调查分析了8个样地、24个样带、96个样方的消落带植被及土壤理化特征。结果表明,在三峡库区万州段消落带共调查到维管植物22科、47属、51种,其中禾本科、菊科、蓼科和莎草科的种类数较多;植物群落组成以草本植物为主,其中一年生和多年生草本植物分别占58.8%和27.5%。高程不同,群落优势种有差异,145~155 m及156~165 m区域优势度较高的物种相近,为狗牙根(Cynodon dactylon)、光头稗(Echinochloa crusgalli var. mitis)和醴肠(Eclipta prostrata);高程166~175 m区域优势度较高的物种为鬼针草(Bidens pilosa)和狗尾草(Setaria viridis)和狗牙根;高程156~166 m区域植物鲜重均值最高,为(2199.1±863.9)g/m2;高程166~175 m区域Shannon-Wiener 多样性指数和Pielou 均匀度指数的均值最高,分别为(2.00±0.30)和(0.85±0.06)。随着坡度等级增加,植物鲜重和盖度呈递减趋势,物种数在6~15°区域最高。长江左岸消落带植物鲜重、高度、Shannon-Wiener和Pielou 指数高于右岸。消落带土壤理化性质具有较高的空间异质性,土壤容重、pH、有机质、全氮、有效氮、全磷、有效磷均值分别为(1.34±0.09)g/cm3、(7.60±0.47)、(6.02±2.94) g/kg、(1.21±0.16) g/kg、(53.42±9.67)mg/kg、(0.42±0.14) g/kg、(6.55±2.82) mg/kg,其中有机质的变异系数最大,其次为有效磷和全磷。左岸消落带土壤pH、有机质、全氮和有效氮含量均值低于右岸,但左岸土壤全磷和有效磷含量高于右岸。淹没时间和土壤有效磷含量对消落带植物重要值影响较大。  相似文献
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