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Competition between heterotrophic and nitrifying bacteria is of major practical importance in aquaculture biofilter design and operation. This competition must be understood to minimize the negative impact of heterotrophic bacteria on an aquaculture system. On the other hand, the heterotrophic population is suspected of having a positive effect against pathogenic bacteria. Little information is available on the bacterial communities present within aquaculture systems, except for nitrifying bacteria, but a combination of traditional aquacultural engineering research methods and novel microbiological techniques offers new opportunities for the study of these communities.

The heterotrophic bacterial population activity and the nitrification efficiency of a submerged biological filter were studied for an influent TAN concentration of 2 mg/l and varying C/N ratios. The TAN removal rate was found to be 30% lower at a C/N ratio of 0.5 than at a C/N ratio of 0. For higher C/N ratios the reduction in nitrification efficiency was 50% while the attached bacterial abundance was doubled. Moreover, results confirm that abundance of sheared and attached bacteria are correlated. It is not known to what extent biofilter configuration might influence the relationship between heterotrophic and nitrifying bacteria, and further work will be carried out with moving bed and fluidized filters. A better understanding of the role of the heterotrophic bacteria in RAS will help to optimize any positive “biocontrol” effect and to minimize the microbial degradation of rearing water and the reduction of nitrification rates.  相似文献

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用常规调查分析结合自动监测法对桑沟湾海水中悬浮颗粒物的季节性变化、水平与垂直分布作了全面的调查。结果表明,该湾总悬浮颗粒物和有机悬浮颗粒物的月平均数量变动范围分别为4.62~40.06和1.90~6.14mg/L;叶绿.素α和悬浮颗粒物的质量变动范围分别为0.95~9.68μg/L和0.07~0.80μg/mg。悬浮颗粒物质量的周日变化与潮流运动有关;而其数量无明显的周日变化。悬浮颗粒物质量的水平分布趋势为从湾口到湾底逐渐增加;数量的水平分布趋势与之相反。悬浮颗粒物数量的垂直分布趋势为从上到下逐渐升高;质量垂直分布趋势与之相反。在扇贝养殖区内由于扇贝的消耗,中层水中悬浮颗粒物的数量与质量最小。  相似文献
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ABSTRACT:   Carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios in tissue of the bivalve corbicula ( Corbicula japonica ) and particulate organic matter (POM) were measured along a salinity gradient in the Kushida Estuary, Japan. The bivalve exhibited a gradual isotopic enrichment from the uppermost estuarine site (δ13C = −24.8‰ and δ15N = 8.6‰) to the marine site (δ13C = −16.1‰ and δ15N = 11.8‰). Using the concentration-weighted mixing model, the bivalves' food source is estimated from the isotope values for the bivalves and POM from terrestrial plants, marine phytoplankton and benthic microalgae. The results indicated that the contributions of benthic micro algae and phytoplankton were small, while terrestrial particulate matter is significantly important for the corbicula diet, although the contribution varies among sampling sites.  相似文献
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根据2015年秋季(10月)和2016年冬季(1月)、春季(4月)、夏季(7月)4个航次的调查研究,分析了獐子岛养殖海域表、底层水体中总悬浮颗粒物(TPM)、颗粒有机物(POM)和颗粒有机物比例(PCOM,%)的时空分布特征,结合POM与叶绿素a(Chl-a)及环境因子的相关性分析,探讨了悬浮颗粒物的影响因素及其与虾夷扇贝(Patinopecten yessoensis)底播养殖之间的潜在联系。结果显示,獐子岛海域TPM和POM的浓度变化范围分别为16.76~97.54、2.20~17.20 mg/L,年平均浓度分别为(31.65±9.58)、(6.97±2.08)mg/L。PCOM值的变化范围为8.69%~37.09%,平均值为(22.25±4.18)%。TPM浓度的季节变化趋势为秋季春季夏季冬季,最大值出现在秋季表层。而POM和PCOM的最高值出现在夏季,冬季的值最低。POM与TPM的平面分布趋势相似,大部分海域的平面分布比较均匀;春、夏季POM的分布呈现中部略高、四周略低的特点,秋、冬季与之相反;夏季底层显著高于表层(P0.01),其他季节表、底层无显著差异(P0.05)。4个季节中,獐子岛海域的POM与Chl-a的含量呈极显著正相关关系(P0.01);其中,春季底层和夏季表层的POM与Chl-a均存在极显著正相关关系(P0.01)。另外,只有夏季表层POM与盐度之间存在显著负相关关系(P0.05),说明夏季陆源输入对该海域的悬浮颗粒有机物有显著影响。  相似文献
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通过南日岛海带养殖区现场测量和取样研究了大型经济海藻海带(Saccharina Japonica)的生长速率、组织C、N 、P含量和元素比值、以及养殖区颗粒和溶解有机物的季节变化。实验结果表明:在1个生长周期内,海带的湿重与长度呈明显幂函数关系(W = 0.0205 L7.567,R2 = 0.8351),海带的湿重、长度和宽度与养殖天数具有明显的线性相关关系(湿重、长度和宽度的R2分别为0.9601、0.9614和0.9313)。海带组织C/N比变化范围为9.13~18.66,N/P比变化范围为11.32~18.48,C/P比变化范围为153.18~267.99。海带组织C/P比与P含量呈明显指数函数关系(Y = 748.3 e -4.098X,R2 = 0.878),海带组织C/N比与N含量呈明显指数函数关系(Y = 50.21 e -0.5959X,R2 = 0.9219)。海带养殖区POC、PON和POP的变化范围分别为0.331~0.858 mg/L、0.067~0.112 mg/L和0.005~0.023 mg/L。养殖区DOC、DON和DOP含量的变化范围分别为1.98~17.06 mg/L、0.195~0.549 mg/L和0.008~0.037 mg/L。组织C、N 、P含量的变化范围分别在22.82%~26.43%、1.65%~2.97%和0.25%~0.42%。收获时海带的平均碳氮磷含量分别为26.17%、1.76%和0.29%,以南日岛每年海带养殖总产量10万t计算,每年可移除C、N 、P分别为2.62万t、1760 t和290 t。本研究表明,养殖海带是近海养殖碳循环的重要组成之一,海带具有较高的生长速度和初级生产力,是潜力巨大的海洋碳汇。  相似文献
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为了探究大型植物马来眼子菜(Potamogeton malaianus)和颗粒有机物质(Particulate organic matter,POM)对湖泊主要污染来源的指示作用,在贡湖湾选取14个样点,采集马来眼子菜和POM样品,分析其碳、氮稳定同位素的变化。结果显示,马来眼子菜和POM有相似的δ15N值趋势,都是随着离入湖口距离越远,其δ15N值逐渐增加,马来眼子菜的δ15N值为10.8‰~14.1‰,POM的δ15N值为6.69‰~14.1‰;而马来眼子菜的δ13C值随着离入湖口距离越远有下降趋势,变化范围为-17.6‰ ~ -14.5‰;POM的δ13C值则有增加趋势,变化范围为-26.9‰ ~ -24.6‰。马来眼子菜较高的δ15N值指示了人类生活污水来源的氮,表明贡湖湾的主要污染源为生活污水。相关分析表明,水中总溶解磷(TDP)与马来眼子菜的δ15N值有明显的负相关关系,水中的总氮(TN)与POM的δ15N、δ13C值则呈很好的正相关关系。而POM的N占比和底泥的δ15N值分别与POM的δ15N值有明显的正相关性。研究表明,马来眼子菜和POM的δ15N、δ13C值能够指示太湖贡湖湾的主要污染来源。  相似文献
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为了解三峡大坝蓄水后库区干流鱼类食物网结构及营养关系的构成,应用碳(δ13C)、氮(δ15N)稳定性同位素技术,分别于2010年夏季(7月份)和冬季(12月份)对三峡库区巫山至万州段干流鱼类食物网结构及营养关系的季节变化进行了探讨,并与2005年夏季该区域鱼类食物网结构和营养关系组成情况进行了比较。结果显示:本次(2010年)调查颗粒有机物(POM)和固着藻类样品δ13C值分别为-25.62‰~-23.72‰、-19.81‰~-19.47‰,且无显著性季节(夏季和冬季)差异。POM 和固着藻类(内源性营养物质)是三峡库区巫山至万州段干流鱼类食物网基础能量的主要来源,但外源性营养物质输入也是其基础能量来源的重要补充途径。与2005年相比,2010年该区域鱼类食物网中消费者δ13C值富集度和食物网营养级长度均有所增加。该研究结果对三峡库区鱼类资源增殖放流和生态修复有重要指导意义。  相似文献
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ABSTRACT:   Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in tissue of the bivalve corbicula Corbicula japonica and particulate organic matter (POM) were measured in Lake Jusan, Lake Ogawara and Lake Shinji, which are the foremost fishing grounds for the corbicula in Japan, to determine their food sources. The bivalves in Lake Ogawara and Lake Shinji showed enriched isotope composition, while those in Lake Jusan were depleted. In addition, the difference in the isotope ratios between the sampling sites was remarkable in Lake Jusan. Chlorophyll concentrations were significantly higher in Lake Ogawara and Lake Shinji than those in the inflow rivers, although that in Lake Jusan was equivalent to that in the river. Residence time of river water was estimated at 1 day, 455 days and 88 days in Lake Jusan, Lake Ogawara and Lake Shinji, respectively. These values indicate that the bivalves in Lake Ogawara and Lake Shinji assimilate autochthonous phytoplankton, while those in Lake Jusan assimilate terrestrial matter in the upper reaches and marine phytoplankton in the lower reaches because of low production in the lake.  相似文献
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