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1.
刘至治 《水产学报》2006,30(3):347-352
2004年1月至2005年4月在江苏靖江市的长江沿岸用定置张网采集刀鲚261尾。清洗后的矢耳石在60℃烤箱中烘烤24h,干燥冷却后用电子天平称重,精确到0.01mg。成对t检验显示,左右矢耳石间的重量无显著差异(P〉0.05),选用左矢耳石为研究对象。用直线、幂函数和多项式等确定各类参数间的最佳拟合公式。结果表明,长江口刀鲚的耳石重量在不同年龄组间的重叠相对较少,大小相近的个体,年龄大即生长慢的比年龄小即生长快的耳石重量大,不同龄组间耳石重量有显著的差异(P〈0.05)。按年龄组以耳石重量与相应的体长作图,可初步判断所观测年龄的可靠性。分析耳石重量的频率分布,能分离出体长相近但年龄不同的个体,其结果与依据耳石年轮观测的基本一致,耳石重量与年龄呈显著的线性相关性(P〈0.05)。用该相关性估算年龄,与从耳石上直接读取的年龄并无显著差异(P〉0.05)。因此,矢耳石重量可以作为直接确定长江口刀鲚年龄或作为验证依据钙化组织判断年龄准确性的有效手段。  相似文献
2.
鱼类年龄鉴定研究概况   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
鱼类年龄鉴定是渔业资源评估的基础内容,经过长时间的发展,众多的方法被应用到这一领域。综述了目前应用较广泛的一些年龄鉴定方法,包括硬组织鉴定法和长度分析法两大部分方法,并分析了它们的优点和缺点。目前,鱼类年龄鉴定工作中存在的主要问题有:鉴定方法的精确度不高;鉴定方法多数较冗繁,耗时耗力;鱼类年龄鉴定未经标准化。有鉴于此,有必要对各种鉴定方法进行校验。介绍了几种常用的年龄校验方法,并对其进行了分析。  相似文献
3.
两种耳石分析法在鲚属种间和种群间识别效果的比较研究   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
采用耳石传统形态测量法和傅里叶形态分析法,对281尾2龄长江凤鲚(Coilia mystus)和刀鲚(C.nasus)个体的矢耳石形态学作了分析,结果表明,采用传统的耳石形态测量法对凤鲚与刀鲚种间的正判率达90.9%,但2个刀鲚生态型种群之间的判别成功率仅为76.9%。而运用傅里叶耳石形态分析法,凤鲚和刀鲚物种间的识别率高达100%,2个刀鲚生态型间的识别率也提高至86.8%。可见,两种耳石形态分析法对鲚属种间的识别效果均很好,但对种群分析而言,傅里叶形态分析法可以取得更好的识别效果。  相似文献
4.
Spatial behaviour of fishes in fresh and brackish water ranges in temporal scales between localized diel movements, often associated with foraging and predator evasion, to seasonal or life‐cycle related events involving movements between freshwater habitats or freshwater and marine biotopes. Recent technological advances have resulted in dramatic improvements in the range of techniques available for the study of spatial behaviour of freshwater fishes in the natural environment, and broadly may be divided into two categories: capture dependent and capture independent. The former incorporates those methods that rely on sampling marked fish (mark–recapture) or unmarked fish (density estimates, catch per unit effort) over defined scales of time and space in order to derive information on distribution and movement. Captured fish may also be tagged with transmitters that radiate energy, enabling the fish to be tracked and/or environmental data to be gathered. Biochemical analysis of samples from fish, requiring non‐destructive sampling (genetic analysis and scale microchemistry) or destructive sampling (otolith microchemistry) may also provide information on migration and ontogenetic processes. Capture independent techniques include visual observation and video techniques, hydroacoustics and automated fish counting. Catch per unit effort and mark–recapture techniques are most efficient where long‐term fishery or monitoring studies are in place and data on crude spatial and temporal scales are acceptable. They also have the advantages of low technical requirements and low equipment costs. Where specific management or ecological questions are pertinent, recapture independent techniques may be more appropriate. Telemetric methods can provide high resolution information at the individual level, while hydroacoustics is increasingly providing information at the population level in large lake and river environments. Biochemical methods are becoming increasingly useful in determining the extent of population segregation, where DNA analysis is used, and in the study of migration and ontogenetic changes in behaviour, where otolith microchemistry and stable isotope analysis is used.  相似文献
5.
长江短颌鲚耳石Sr/Ca值变化特征及其江海洄游履历   总被引:5,自引:3,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
为确证长江刀鲚生殖洄游季节的短颌刀鲚是否为江海洄游个体,采用X射线电子探针微区分析技术(EPMA)研究了2013年4月27日采自长江靖江段的1尾短颌鲚(XGC-A)和1尾长颌鲚(XGC-B)矢耳石的锶和钙的微化学特征,同时将实验结果与确认是江海洄游型长江刀鲚矢耳石的锶和钙的微化学特征进行了比对分析。定量线分析结果显示,短颌鲚和长颌鲚个体的锶钙比值均波动显著,不仅具有对应淡水生活的低值(1.59±0.80、1.55±0.74),而且出现了对应于海水生活的高值(4.38±1.33、3.56±0.94),显示出其溯河洄游的履历。该结果也得到了耳石元素面分布分析结果验证。本实验结果首次证实了目前长江中存在短颌鲚参与江海洄游的个体。  相似文献
6.
Variability in growth rates of larval haddock in the northern North Sea   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
The large-scale distribution of haddock ( Melanogrammus aeglefinus ) larvae in the northern North Sea was mapped in a grid survey carried out in late April 1996. A drifting buoy was deployed in the centre of one of the areas of concentration of larvae located off the east coast of the Shetland Isles, where intensive sampling was carried out for ≈ 10 days. Daily larval haddock growth variability, estimated from otolith microstructure analysis, was independent of the measured variability of the physical and biological environment of the larvae. The survey coincided with the onset of the spring plankton production bloom, and a likely explanation for the absence of environmental effects on larval growth was high food availability and larval feeding rates. Nevertheless, differences in growth were observed between cohorts, with larvae hatched later in the spring displaying higher growth at age than those hatched earlier. Particle-tracking modelling suggested that differences in temperature history between cohorts, on their own or compounded by a potential interaction between temperature and the development of plankton production, may explain the higher growth rate of the larvae hatched later in the season.  相似文献
7.
A growth model for the endangered cyprinid fish Tribolodon nakamurai was derived following otolith analyses of 16 wild and 53 reared specimens. The asteriscus was the most appropriate to measure size among three otolith elements, and its height OH  mm was used as size index of otolith. Standard length L  cm was best back-calculated using the Gompertz model, L  = 70.0·exp[–exp{−0.553 (OH   –  2.73)}]. Translucent zones on the lapilli, analyzed from 5-year-old-reared fish, were regarded as winter slow-growing zones. The ages of 10 wild specimens of 37.0–48.1 cm standard length were calculated as 7–10 years by counting the translucent zones on the lapilli. Age t was best back-calculated using the allometry model, t  = 1.33· OH 1.37. The growth trajectory of T.   nakamurai followed a slender S curve, three typical growth models, von Bertalanffy, Logistic and Gompertz, and Richards' model, which is a general formula of the above three, being fitted using the maximum likelihood method. The Gompertz model, Lt  = 60.2·exp[–exp{−0.258( t  − 4.68)}], was found by Akaike's information criterion (AIC) to be the statistically most acceptable growth model.  相似文献
8.
于室内养殖条件下研究了鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)、鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)和草鱼(Ctenopharyngodonidellus)胚后发育阶段矢耳石的形态发育,采用椭圆傅立叶分析法,基于矢耳石形态,比较了以孵化后日龄、耳石形态、发育期以及不同体长组为基础的判别方式上,对这3种家鱼苗的种类判别成功率。结果表明,总判别成功率均表现出了逐渐增加的趋势。孵化后4 d时,总判别率为79.79%;10 d时,总判别率始达90%以上,18 d时,总判别成功率稳定在100%。在尾椎上翘期以前的各发育期,总判别率均低于90%,而鳔二室期之后,总判别成功率达95%以上。据矢耳石形态,圆形和近圆形阶段总判别成功率较低,分别为61%和81%,在长椭圆形阶段后,总判别成功率达90%以上。而以体长为基础的判别成功率,初始总判别成功率便在90%以上。因此,若以判别率的高低为标准,则以不同体长组来鉴别鱼苗种类为最佳,而据耳石形态和发育期来鉴别鱼苗种类,则具有普遍的适用性。  相似文献
9.
南极鱼类年龄与生长研究进展   总被引:3,自引:2,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
朱国平  魏联 《水产学报》2017,41(10):1638-1647
南极鱼类生长相对缓慢,独特的生物学特性使其年龄鉴定较其他海区鱼类更为困难。但考虑到鱼类年龄鉴定是开展渔业资源评估的基础,因此过去一些年来,硬质部位,如鳞片、鳍条(棘)、脊椎骨以及耳石等仍成为南极鱼类的主要鉴龄材料。本文对南极鱼类年龄鉴定的方法和材料进行了总结回顾,将年龄鉴定的方法和材料进行比较,分析各自优缺点。结果显示:(1)对于具鳞的南极鱼类,因鳞片在鱼类生长过程中存在重吸收现象,因而利用鳞片及鳍条(棘)单独鉴龄所得出的结果通常小于耳石的鉴龄结果,缺乏精确性;(2)南极鱼类生活跨度较大,高龄鱼体长频次分布严重重叠,以致无法准确判断其年龄结构;(3)耳石重量法易受到特殊个体影响而误判年龄;(4)因鳍条易损坏,脊椎骨采集较为困难,且许多南极鱼类无鳞,目前大多数南极鱼类使用耳石鉴定年龄,其也成为目前最为精准的南极鱼类鉴龄方法,但同时利用鳞片和耳石重量等对鉴定结果进行验证;(5)南极鱼类尚存在无统一的鉴龄标准、人为主观性较强以及缺乏早期生活史研究等不足之处;(6)为了研究南极鱼类早期生活史,耳石微化学及微结构等方法将被广泛利用。  相似文献
10.
长江江津江段中华沙鳅耳石及年龄生长的初步研究   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:3  
对长江江津段中华沙鳅(Botia superciliarisG櫣nther)的耳石,年龄和生长进行了初步研究。结果显示:几种年龄鉴定材料中,适宜中华沙鳅的年龄鉴定材料为耳石,能准确反映其年龄状况。体重与体长的回归方程为:W=0.021L2.8409(r=0.9404);该江段中华沙鳅的生长方程为:体长:Lt=12.5000[1-e-0.3851(t+1.1062)];体重:Wt=29.0944[1-e-0.3851(t+1.1062)]2.8409。  相似文献
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