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1.
三疣梭子蟹个体发育早期的同工酶谱变化   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:11  
朱冬发 《水产学报》2005,29(6):751-756
采用垂直板聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳技术研究了三疣梭子蟹个体发育早期(从未受精卵到第一期幼蟹)11种同工酶(LDH、GDH、ADH、SOD、EST、ME、MDH、SDH、GOT、ACP和α-AMY)酶谱的变化:结果表明,三疣梭子蟹EST、ME、MDH、SDH、GOT、ACP和α-AMY等7种同工酶电泳图谱显示了明显的发育阶段差异性,大都随发育渐趋复杂。个体发育阶段特异性的同工酶可以作为一项生化指标用于三疣梭子蟹发育阶段的鉴别。在三疣梭子蟹整个胚胎和幼体发育过程中均未能检测出LDH和GDH活性,而ADH和SOD酶活性则有持续和较稳定的表现。根据各同工酶的个体发育谱式,三疣梭子蟹个体发育过程中同工酶的表达类型被划分为4种。讨论了三疣梭子蟹同工酶的个体发生多念性和刚孵化的第一期涵状幼体的同工酶活性。  相似文献
2.
ABSTRACT:   Laboratory rearing and behavioral observations of larval and juvenile jack mackerel Trachurus japonicus were conducted to elucidate their life-history traits with emphasis on the interaction with the moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita . Jack mackerel were raised from naturally spawned fertilized eggs and they attained 10.3 ± 0.7 (mean ± standard deviation) mm in body length (BL) by 30 days post hatching (dph) and 26.6 ± 1.8 mm BL at 48 dph raised at 19.3–25.0°C. Patchiness (dense aggregation) was confirmed from 5–16 dph (2.9–5.9 mm BL) during the day and from 9–48 dph (4.0–27 mm BL) at night. Cruise and burst swimming speeds were 1.5–1.9 BL/s and 16–24 BL/s, respectively, during larval and juvenile stages, in experimental tanks. Although escape performance from jellyfish was not different between the larvae of jack mackerel and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus , both species showed better survival compared to red sea bream Pagrus major larvae of a similar size. Although jack mackerel were slow in growth, their slow cruise swimming may reduce the chance of encountering predators and fast burst swimming may help escape from gelatinous predators.  相似文献
3.
ABSTRACT:   To determine an optimal temperature range for efficient production of healthy eel larvae Anguilla japonica , the effect of water temperature on hatching, survival, and deformity rates was examined. The early ontogeny of morphological features in this species by incubating eggs at five different temperatures (19, 22, 25, 28 and 31°C) was examined. Hatching occurred at 24, 28, 46 and 58 h after fertilization when incubated at 28, 25, 22 and 19°C, respectively; no eggs hatched at 31°C. The growth rate of prefeeding larvae increased as water temperature was elevated and acquisition of feeding ability was also accelerated at higher temperature. Significantly high hatching rates (76–86%, P  < 0.05) and survival rates (61–86%, P  < 0.05) were observed at relatively high temperatures (22–28°C). The deformities were 'open lower jaw', 'pericardial edema', and 'notochordal bending', in which the mouth was deformed with a downward projecting lower jaw, the pericardial cavity was swollen, and the notochord was bent or twisted to various degrees, respectively. Open lower jaw and pericardial edema were especially predominant at 19°C, with rates of 68 and 92%, respectively, compared with 31 and 10% at 25 and 28°C, respectively. The occurrence of notochordal bending was not affected by temperature. The optimal temperature for incubation and rearing A. japonica eggs and prefeeding larvae is approximately 25–28°C.  相似文献
4.
斑节对虾个体发育早期的同工酶变化   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:22  
斑节对虾个体发育早期的同工酶变化李纯厚,钟振如,陈敏(中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所,广州510300)关键词斑节对虾,个体发育,酯酶同工酶ISOZYMECHANGESDURINGEARLYONTOGENYOFPENAEUSMONODON¥LiCh...  相似文献
5.
Ontogenetic changes in digestive tract histology and digestive enzyme histochemistry were investigated 11 to 36 days post-hatch in white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus larvae. From initiation of exogenous feeding (12 days post-hatch), larvae were fed a commercial salmonid diet for the ensuing 24 days. The digestive system of white sturgeon displayed a high degree of morphologic organization and functionality at the onset of exogenous feeding. An enhancement of digestive capacities occurred with transition to active feeding. On day 2 of feeding, there was a clear increase of alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase M, dipeptidyl peptidase IV, and -glutamyl transpeptidase activity in the brush border of the spiral intestine. This strong activity is an apparent confirmation of the importance of this segment of the intestine for protein digestion and nutrient absorption. The functional development of the pyloric intestine occurred on day 4 and was concomitant with an increase in the activity of brush border and cytoplasmic enzymes such as acetylcholinesterase, dipeptidyl peptidase II, - and -galactosidases. The absence of acetylcholinesterase, lactase, nonspecific esterase, and weak activity of exopeptidases and alkaline phosphatase in the anterior intestine suggests that this segment of the intestine may be less important in nutrient absorption than the pyloric and spiral intestines. The observed quantitative and qualitative differences in enzyme activity along the intestine indicate a high degree of specialization of each segment for specific digestive and absorptive processes.  相似文献
6.
Abstract – The trophic ecology of many fish species in cold temperate lakes is often characterized by a generalist or opportunist strategy. In this study, the diets of polytrophic brown trout in Loch Ness, Scotland, have been examined using stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to complement gut content analyses and aging by otolith annuli counts. Using the stable isotope ratios, it was possible to trace trout ontogeny from parr development in a natal river to piscivory in the pelagic. Potential dilution of maternal isotope signatures from eggs to parr was also demonstrated. Despite the low productivity of the loch, intraspecific variability in isotope ratios suggested dietary specialization, rather than opportunism, in some individuals.  相似文献
7.
Dynamics of intracohort cannibalism in cultured fish   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:1  
8.
Functional hermaphroditism in teleosts   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Teleost fishes are characterized by a diversity of sexual patterns. Hermaphroditism, the expression of both male and female reproductive function in a single individual, generates the most curiosity and controversy. Yet diagnosis of this form of sexuality continues to challenge workers, in particular the distinction between functional and non‐functional hermaphroditism. This distinction, reflected as it is in the relationships between gonad form and function, is important if we wish to improve our understanding of the origin of hermaphroditism in the teleosts and of its highly sporadic expression today. Although structure can indicate phylogenetic affinities, it does not always reflect reproductive function, and function is important for understanding adaptation. With resurgent interest in hermaphroditism comes the recognition that understanding sexual pattern is not only important for better knowledge of reproductive biology and ecology but may also elucidate phylogenetic relationships. On the basis of a conservative and clearly defined set of diagnostic criteria, which incorporate new accounts of hermaphroditic species, and by applying an improved understanding of gonadal ontogeny, a comprehensive review and careful re‐examination of all primary literature was conducted. This overview documents the incidence of hermaphroditism in teleosts and explores its phylogenetic distribution, possible origin and range of expression. The review confirms functional hermaphroditism in 27 teleost families in seven orders, predominantly among tropical, marine perciforms in which its diversity of expression is greatest. In families with functional hermaphrodites, the sexual pattern is widespread and often highly variable in expression, even within a single genus or between populations. Based on our understanding of gonadal ontogeny in teleosts and on known phylogenetic interrelationships, the origin of functional hermaphroditism is most parsimoniously explained by a proto‐hermaphroditic condition in teleosts and cyclostomes, constituting a hermaphroditic potential for these groups. Exploitation and expression of this potential appear to be a response to a suite of environmental and biological factors, opportunities and constraints that result in the independent appearance of the hermaphroditic option in many different fish lineages.  相似文献
9.
鱼类早期发育阶段是其生活史中的关键时期之一,生理、形态学变化剧烈,死亡率极高.研究鱼类早期发育阶段的生长规律及其生理特性,可为了解鱼类早期阶段的致死因子提供理论依据,有助于提高苗种阶段的生长率和成活率,也对制定合理的早期培育策略具有重要的指导意义.异速生长模式对确定仔鱼的养殖模式有重要的指示作用,鱼类在早期阶段会优先发育与生命活动关系较密切的器官,以期达到较高的早期成活率.RNA/DNA是评价鱼类早期发育阶段生长率的有效指标,也可用于评价仔稚鱼的生长潜力、营养状况、饲料营养水平以及确定关键期.研究仔稚鱼消化酶的发生和演变有助于深入了解鱼类在个体发育早期的消化生理,有助于选择适口饵料和制定投喂策略.因此,本文综述了鱼类早期发育阶段的异速生长模式、核酸及蛋白含量变化规律以及消化酶的发生和变化,为鱼类早期阶段健康养殖的发展提供依据.  相似文献
10.
The ide Leuciscus idus (Linnaeus 1758) belongs to autochthonous, less frequent and vulnerable fish species in the frame of ichthyofauna of the Czech Republic. It was the reason for testing the possibility of captive breeding and production of fry in a controlled environment. The goal of this paper was to find the optimal transfer time of ide larvae from live food (Artemia salina nauplii) to dry starter feed providing good survival and growth. At the end of the experiment, high values of cumulative survival (in percentages) and individual weight (in milligrammes) were found for ide fry in groups D (90.6%, 178.6 mg; 15 days A. salina + 10 days starter feed), A (89.9%, 169.9 mg; A. salina only) and C (88.6%, 160.4 mg; 10 days A. salina + 15 days starter feed). Significantly lower values of the given parameters were found in group B (57.1%, 92.6 mg; 5 days A. salina + 20 days starter feed), and the lowest ones were in group E (29.8%, 75.6 mg; starter feed only). Mean values of the level of ontogenesis at the end of the experiment in fry of A–E groups were analogous to length and weight growth. Groups D, C and A consisted of juveniles only (J1, J2), and groups B and E consisted of larvae and juveniles (L4, L5, L6, J1, J2). Condition and production parameters [Fulton’s coefficient of condition (FWC), total length (TL), weight (w), specific growth rate (SGR), food conversion ratio (FCR), cumulative survival] and relationships between basic lengths TL, fork length (FL) and standard length (SL) were evaluated.  相似文献
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