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1.
Recent changes in the trophic structure of the Black Sea   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
During the past few decades, the Black Sea has been subjected to various human impacts that have led to changes in the ecology of this inland sea. River runoff has introduced high levels of certain heavy metals and other toxic substances as well as detergents. Ship traffic has led to the introduction of new species, and fishing pressures have also altered the ecology of the area.
This paper reviews major ecological changes over the past 40 years. An increase in nutrients has caused eutrophication, with outbursts of phytoplankton blooms and changes in the species composition of these algae. Small-sized zooplankton species and gelatinous zooplankton have become more common, while many of the herbivorous copepods have decreased in abundance or have disappeared. The introduction of the predatory ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the 1980s has had significant impact on the plankton community and has led to a sharp decline in anchovy stocks. Decreased water transparency has led to a loss of macrophytic algae, except in shallow waters, and to a subsequent decline in the zoobenthos associated with this flora. Eutrophication has also led to decreased oxygen concentrations in the near-bottom water due to large amounts of decomposing phytoplankton, and regions of hypoxia and anoxia now appear on the shelf, with consequent reduction in benthic populations of invertebrates and demersal fish. The numbers of fish species harvested commercially have fallen from 26 to 5, but the total catch has increased, owing to increases in abundance of small fish (e.g., sprat) and horse mackerel, and to increased fishing effort.  相似文献
2.
环境缺氧(Hypoxia)及其对鱼类影响的研究进展   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
环境缺氧不仅会引起鱼类形态结构的改变还使其生理状态发生变化,对鱼类的各种生命活动具有重要影响。本文从环境缺氧的因素、适应的类型及其对鱼类呼吸、摄食、生长和游泳的影响等方面进行了综述,旨在为鱼类生理生态相关研究、渔业养殖提供基础资料。  相似文献
3.
河口及近岸海域低氧环境对水生动物的影响   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
顾孝连  徐兆礼 《海洋渔业》2009,31(4):426-437
水体溶解氧浓度低于2 mg/L时,通常称水体为低氧或缺氧(hypoxia)。目前,中国的长江口等许多河口及近岸海域的底层水体出现了季节性低氧区,这些低氧区对鱼类等水生动物及海洋生态环境的影响目前仍不十分清楚,这应引起政府及研究部门的关注。本文综述了低氧区的成因,分析了低氧对水生动物的影响,特别是近年来研究较多的水生动物对低氧的分子响应研究进展,最后综述了低氧对海洋生态系统的影响。我国未来的研究应注重低氧区海洋物理、海洋生物等基础数据的收集,同时,要加强低氧区对我国主要渔场影响的研究。  相似文献
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长江口外海域夏末温跃层与底层水低氧现象研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
林军  闫庆  朱建荣  龚甫贤 《水产学报》2014,38(10):1747-1757
基于长江口外海域2009年夏末调查的温盐和溶解氧(DO)资料,采用垂向梯度法对夏末长江口外海域温度垂向结构类型进行划分,计算了温跃层深度、强度和温跃层处DO垂向梯度等参数。长江口外海域夏末水温垂向结构类型及其温跃层强度的分布表现为长江冲淡水、黄海沿岸流、台湾暖流表层暖水和台湾暖流深层冷水交汇、混合的态势。相关性分析表明,温跃层深度与温跃层处DO垂向梯度之间为负相关,温跃层深度与垂向最小DO浓度之间为正相关,温跃层强度与温跃层处DO垂向梯度之间为正相关。最接近DO供给源的上温跃层强度与温跃层处DO垂向梯度具有较强的相关性(r=0.69)。温跃层越浅、强度越大,对底层水低氧现象的影响越大。温跃层、特别是上温跃层引起的水体层化阻碍DO向底层输运,起到了物理隔氧的作用,与低氧现象具有紧密的联系,是低氧现象在长江口外海域从春末到秋季发生、发展、维持和消亡过程的重要环境控制因素。  相似文献
6.
黄贻涛  王艺磊 《水产学报》2013,37(6):830-839
同种移植炎症因子AIF-1 (allograft inflammatory factor 1,AIF-1)是一种由干扰素γ诱导的含有EF-hand结构域的钙离子结合蛋白,其功能主要是参与移植排斥、免疫炎症反应、自身炎性和非炎性的损伤等.首次克隆了杂色鲍AIF-1基因cDNA全序列,命名为HdAIF-1,其全长为942 bp,开放阅读框为456 bp,编码151个氨基酸.实时荧光定量PCR结果表明:HdAIF-1在杂色鲍各组织中均有表达,其中在血淋巴和鳃中表达量最高.高温应激下,HdAIF-1在鳃组织中各时相表达均显著上调,并在温度升至31℃时达到最高.而血淋巴和肝胰腺中HdAIF-1在高温应激前4个时相表达无显著差异,到了96 h均显著上调.缺氧应激下,HdAIF-1在血淋巴中表达变化没有显著差异,而鳃中24 h显著下调,192 h显著上调.副溶血弧菌感染实验表明HdAIF-1基因在感染后3、24和48 h均检测到HdAIF-1的表达量显著上调.高温和缺氧应激以及弧菌感染均显示HdAIF-1基因表达量发生显著变化,说明HdAIF-1可能作为免疫因子在杂色鲍应激等状况下发挥重要作用.  相似文献
7.
Abstract –  This study examined whether habitat use by the African anabantid fish Ctenopoma muriei is consistent with predictions relating to two costs of air breathing (surface travel and aerial predation). We predicted that C. muriei would be most abundant in habitats that minimize potential costs of air breathing. We quantified environmental correlates of C. muriei abundance within a series of wetland lagoons in Uganda and found that C. muriei was more abundant in shallow waters of the deepest lagoon, in vegetated habitats, and at a depth 15–30 cm below the surface. These locations may minimize cost of travel to the surface for aerial respiration, while maintaining a reasonable distance from the surface to avoid detection by aerial predators. In addition, we experimentally tested effectiveness of vegetative cover in reducing mortality of C. muriei by aerial predators (pied kingfishers) using enclosures with and without vegetation cover in a swamp pool. We found that the presence of vegetative cover significantly reduced susceptibility of C. muriei to predation by pied kingfishers when dissolved oxygen in the water was low and air-breathing frequency was potentially high.  相似文献
8.
ABSTRACT:   Laboratory experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that low dissolved oxygen concentrations have the potential to enhance the predation rate on fish larvae by moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita which is increasing in abundance in the coastal waters of Japan. Larvae of the red sea bream Pagrus major in four size classes (2.9, 4.1, 6.2 and 8.6 mm in standard length) were used as prey in a short-term predation experiment. No change in the bell contraction rate of the jellyfish (mean bell diameter, 100.4 ± 10.2 mm) was observed at the oxygen concentrations tested (1, 2 and 4 mg/L, and air-saturated, 5.5–6.0 mg/L), suggesting a strong tolerance to a decline in the oxygen concentration. More than 80% of the 2.5 and 4.1-mm size-class larvae were predated on by the jellyfish at all oxygen concentrations during the 15-min trials in 10-L tanks. The 6.2 and 8.6-mm size-class larvae were able to escape from the jellyfish apparently due to their developed swimming ability at the two higher dissolved oxygen concentrations. There was an increase in predation on larvae of these two size classes at the two lower dissolved oxygen concentrations. Predation by moon jellyfish on fish larvae can be more intense at low dissolved oxygen concentrations that commonly occur in the coastal waters of Japan.  相似文献
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为研究低氧胁迫对鲻幼鱼生长、能量代谢和氧化应激的影响,实验将其放在溶解氧(DO,mean±SE)含量分别控制在(1.66士0.41)、(4.35士0.53)、(7.03士0.36) mg/L的条件下养殖10d,然后恢复至接近饱和溶解氧含量7.0 mg/L的条件下养殖30 d,研究其特定生长率、排氨率、耗氧率、氧氮比和血浆、肌肉、肝脏及鳃组织的总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)、过氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力、抗超氧阴离子活力(ASOR)、丙二醛(MDA)含量、乳酸(LD)含量、总谷胱甘肽(T-GSH)、还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)和氧化型谷胱甘肽(GSSG)含量.结果表明:低氧胁迫对鲻幼鱼的生长、能量代谢影响显著,较严重缺氧组鲻的体质量、特定生长率(SGR)、耗氧率和排氨率显著低于其他处理,不具有补偿生长的能力;而轻微缺氧组获得完全补偿生长.低氧胁迫对鲻氧化应激指标影响显著,胁迫结束时鲻通过提高某些抗氧化酶的活力来增强抗氧化能力,以提高其应对恢复正常溶解氧环境可能带来的氧化应激的能力,同时在恢复溶氧后鲻氧化应激反应也较强烈.在恢复溶解氧阶段,肝脏中GSH显著增加,说明鲻体内的保护机制被激活.肝脏和鳃中MDA的含量在低氧胁迫后与溶解氧含量呈明显的负相关性,在复氧30d后仍然高于对照组,表明低氧胁迫加强鲻肝脏和鳃组织脂质过氧化反应.  相似文献
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