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1.
王蕾  章守宇  汪振华  王凯  林军 《水产学报》2011,35(7):1037-1049
2005年—2006年及2010年5—6月对枸杞岛近岸岩礁生境分布的底栖海藻进行观测和潜水采样,发现岩礁生境潮下带底栖海藻组成模式分以大型底栖海藻铜藻为优势种和以孔石莼等小型藻类为优势种两类。2009年2月—2010年1月利用组合刺网对枸杞岛海域岩礁、沙地和贻贝筏式养殖区3种生境的鱼类进行了逐月采样,通过采用方差分析、聚类和非度量多维标度等统计分析手段发现:(1) 岩礁生境鱼类以底栖趋礁杂食性为主,沙地生境鱼类以中下层洄游肉食性为主,贻贝筏式养殖区生境鱼类大型个体占优;(2) 岩礁生境鱼类多样性较高,大型底栖海藻生长的岩礁生境中鱼类群落组成较小型底栖海藻生长的岩礁生境稳定。前者为枸杞岛近岸优势种群繁衍提供有利条件,对鱼类幼体和小型个体有诱集作用,为鱼类捕食者提供更多样化的食物选择,鱼类群落较稳定;后者易受外界鱼类迁移的影响,个体数量和生物量月间差异大。  相似文献
2.
Abstract –  We studied the impact of two exotic salmonid species (brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss ) on native brown trout ( Salmo trutta fario ) habitat, growth and survival. Habitat selection and vertical distribution between young-of-the-year of the three species were examined in a stream aquarium under different sympatric and allopatric combinations. In addition, similar species combinations were introduced in a Pyrenean mountain stream (southwest France) in order to extend laboratory results to growth and apparent survival. Both laboratory and field results indicated that rainbow trout significantly affected native brown trout habitat selection and apparent survival. On the contrary, brown trout habitat, growth and apparent survival were hardly affected by brook trout. These results support the idea that rainbow trout negatively influence native brown trout, and that competition could influence the outcome of fish biological invasions in freshwater ecosystems.  相似文献
3.
Abstract— We conducted laboratory experiments which demonstrated that three littoral zone fishes differentially selected among three macrophytes when seeking refuge from predation. In the presence of a predator (a juvenile Micropterus salmoides ), mosquitofish ( Gambusia holbrooki ), sailfin mollies ( Poecilia latipinna ). and dollar sunfish ( Lepomis marginatus ) displayed ferential use of four tank areas containing patches of either Hydrilla verticillata , Potamogeton illinoensis, Panicum hemitomon , or no plants. Patterns habitat selection, and the consistency of these patterns among replicates, differed among the three fishes and among three plant-density treatments - natural (each macrophyte presented at its mean field density), equal (all three macrophytes at the same density), and control (no plants). Selection for H. verticillata by mosquitofish was significant for both the equal and natural treatments, and thus was not caused by differences in plant density alone. Sailfin mollies displayed significant selection for H. verticillata only in the natural plant-density treatments. Dollar sunfish showed less consistent habitat selection than either mosquitofish or sailfin mollies. Significant habitat selection was not found in the absence of a predator, and there was no evidence for lection among the tank areas in control treatments. Patterns of habitat selection by the three fishes in our laboratory study corresponded to observed habitat use in Lake Okeechobee.  相似文献
4.
Abstract— Large piscivorous fish are assumed to affect habitat selection and food intake of prey fish. To study the effects of cannibalistic Arctic charr, Salvelinus alpinus (L.), on smaller stunted charr, we sampled the prey fish in littoral and pelagic habitats using gill nets, before and shortly after the release of large charr in a small lake (0.52 km2). In the habitats where the risk of predation was highest, the catch per unit effort de creased from 13.3 to 4.8 fish per 100 m2 of gillnet after release of pred ators. The large decrease in numbers of charr < 18 cm corresponded with the predicted vulnerable prey sizes, according to a model based on the size distribution of predators. The occurrence of planktivorous fish and weight-specific food intake decreased in the high risk habitat and remained unaffected in the low risk habitats. Changes in the food intake of prey fish could not be explained in terms of fish length, indicating that prey fish changed diet when the risk of predation was high.  相似文献
5.
Abstract – This article extends the logic of a habitat selection model (Hughes, Ecology , 1998) to make predictions about the way body size will influence the probability that fish will make a long distance interannual movement, from the feeding position it occupies in one summer to the position it occupies the next. The model predicts that the probability of this kind of movement will fall as fish grow and reach zero for the largest fish in the population. I tested these predictions using data on Arctic grayling Thymallus arcticus in the lower 140 km of a 260-km-long interior Alaskan river. Both predictions of the model were well supported by the data. As expected, the probability a fish will make a long-distance interannual movement decreased with fish size, and the largest fish in the population had a movement probability of zero. NOTE  相似文献
6.
Abstract – Spatial models of fish growth rate potential have been used to characterize a variety of environments including estuaries, the North American Great Lakes, small lakes and rivers. Growth rate potential models capture a snapshot of the environment but do not include the effects of habitat selection or competition for food in their measures of environment quality. Here, we test the ability of spatial models of fish growth rate potential to describe the quality of an environment for a fish population in which individual fish may select habitats and local competition may affect per capita intake. We compare growth rate potential measurements to simulated fish growth and distributions of model fish from a spatially explicit individual-based model of fish foraging in the same model environment. We base the model environment on data from Lake Ontario and base the model fish population on alewife in the lake. The results from a simulation experiment show that changes in the model environment that caused changes in the average growth rate potential correlated extremely highly ( r 2≥0.97) with changes in simulated fish growth. Unfortunately, growth rate potential was not a reliable quantitative predictor of simulated fish growth nor of the fish spatial distribution. The inability of the growth rate potential model to quantitatively predict simulated fish growth and fish distributions results from the fact that growth rate potential does not consider the effects of habitat selection or of competition on fish growth or distribution, processes that operate in our individual-based model and presumably also operate in nature. The results, however, do support the use of growth rate potential models to describe the relative quality of habitats and environments for fish populations.  相似文献
7.
Abstract –  We examined macrohabitat patch level assemblage composition and habitat use patterns of fishes over four seasons in a second-order submontane stream (Danube drainage, Hungary). Rainfall data indicated that our study included both high- and low-water periods, and hence our results may be applicable to broader time scales. Principal component analysis of physical habitat data from 13 macrohabitat patches indicated that these patches represented a riffle-pool continuum. Correspondence analysis of fish assemblage structure data from these patches identified a continuum in assemblage composition that was positively correlated with the habitat continuum. The riffle fauna was dominated by stone loach ( Barbatula barbatula ), whereas chub ( Leuciscus cephalus ) were most abundant in pool patches. We detected little evidence of seasonality in either fish assemblage structure or habitat use. Fish density did not differ significantly among macrohabitat patches in two (summer and autumn 1999) of three seasonal samples, although riffle patches displayed significantly higher fish abundance in late spring 2000. This difference primarily was due to higher abundance of juvenile stone loach in riffles. Two species, stone loach and minnow ( Phoxinus phoxinus ), displayed generalized habitat use patterns, whereas chub and rare species (i.e., gudgeon, Gobio gobio ; dace, Leuciscus leuciscus ; Barbus petenyi ; and burbot, Lota lota ) were significantly over-represented in pool habitats. We hypothesized that pool specialists (i.e., chub and rare species) were responding primarily to the increased depth of these habitats. Nevertheless, our data did not demonstrate the presence of separate pool and riffle habitat guilds. In conclusion, we believe that our understanding of stream fish ecology will be greatly facilitated by use of a 'patch-based approach'.  相似文献
8.
Abstract –  The consequences of individual behaviour to dynamics of populations has been a critical question in fish ecology, but linking the two has proven difficult. A modification of Sale's habitat selection model provides a conceptual linkage for relating resource availability and individual habitat selection to exploratory behaviour, emigration and population-level responses. Whole-population experiments with pupfish Cyprinodon macularius that linked all factors along this resource to population continuum lend support to this conceptual model, and illustrate that emigration may be much more common in fish populations than considered in most individual- or population-based models. Accommodating emigration can enhance the ecological appropriateness of behavioural experiments and increase confidence in extrapolation of experimental observations to population-level effects. New experimental designs and advancing technologies offer avenues for assessing population consequences of habitat selection and emigration by individual fish. Emigration often is the key linkage between individual behaviour and population responses, and greater understanding of the underlying factors affecting this often-overlooked demographic parameter could offer new approaches for management and conservation of fishes.  相似文献
9.
Habitat use of an artificial wetland by the invasive catfish Ameiurus melas   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Abstract –  This study examined the distribution and habitat selection of the invasive black bullhead [ Ameiurus melas (Rafinesque)] in the ditches and surrounded temporary flooded habitats of an artificial wetland in western France. A multiscale approach was used to quantify patterns of A. melas abundance in relation to physical habitat characteristics in the ditch network. Young-of-the-year (YOY) and adult A. melas largely dominated the local fish assemblage but were highly variable among sites. Although we found evidence for some fine-scale habitat differences for YOY and adult individuals, the abundance of A. melas was positively and consistently related to the dominance of reed beds. Furthermore, A. melas preferentially used reed beds as opposed to marsh meadows during the flooding period. The results from this study suggest that the invasion of A. melas has been facilitated by the expansion of reed beds associated with the diminution of agricultural pressure in recent decades. This study represents an unusual example where human activities can have had an unexpected effect by facilitating an invasive fish species.  相似文献
10.
The fishery for California groundfishes is managed using broad species complexes, although some non-groundfish species are managed similarly due to the perception of shared behavioral characteristics. This study integrates acoustic telemetry and a GIS to quantify movement patterns of one such species, the ocean whitefish (Caulolatilus princeps) in a marine protected area. Seventeen ocean whitefish were tagged and actively tracked over multiple 24-h periods to measure fine-scale movement patterns. Home ranges based on 95% kernel utilization distributions averaged 20,439 ± 28,492 (±S.D.) m2. Fish were active during the day, foraging over sand habitat at depths averaging 21 ± 8 m, but were inactive at night, taking refuge near rocky reefs at depths averaging 15 ± 7 m. Seventeen additional fish were tagged with coded acoustic transmitters and passively tracked using automated underwater acoustic receivers for up to 1 year. Approximately 75% of these fish exhibited long-term (1 year) fidelity to home ranges in the study area. Results suggest that MPAs can be an effective means of protecting populations of ocean whitefish and based on their habitat associations, ocean whitefish can be managed separately from other reef associated groundfishes.  相似文献
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