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1.
鱼类食性和食物网研究评述   总被引:25,自引:2,他引:23  
鱼类食性和食物网的研究对于了解鱼类群落的结构与功能具有重要意义。本文主要结合国内外有关鱼类食性和食物网研究的报道,概括性叙述了在进行鱼类的食物组成、食性比较、摄食的时空变化、摄食的选择性、营养级、摄食量、食物网及其营养动力学研究时所使用的方法,并对我国开展此类研究的前景和存在的问题进行了讨论。  相似文献
2.
渤海主要生物种间关系及食物网的研究   总被引:24,自引:4,他引:20  
根据1992年-1993年渤海增殖生态基础调查大面定点底拖网试捕的渔获物,对渤海27种鱼类和10种虾蟹类的3801个胃含物样品进行了分析,并与10年前渤海鱼类的食性进行了比较。结果表明:蓝点马鲛、小黄鱼和白姑鱼等主要捕食鱼类胃含物中鱼的比例较10年前明显增加,鱼类的食性类型无明显变化。渤海低级肉食性鱼类的营养级由1982-1983年的平均2.4上升为2.5,中、高级肉食性鱼类的营养级分别由原来的平均3.2和3.8降为2.8和3.3。渤海主要鱼类之间饵料重叠系数大于0.6的占15%。鱼为渤海多数中、高级肉食性鱼类的主要摄食对象。  相似文献
3.
南海北部湾主要鱼类食物网   总被引:15,自引:3,他引:12  
1997-2000年在南海北部湾渔场调查中搜集了49种鱼,共计2080尾。对其食性分析,并依其食料生物的生态类群以及消化器官特点,将其划分为5种食性类型:浮游生物食性、底栖生物食性、游泳动物食性、浮游生物兼底栖生物食性、底栖生物兼游泳动物食性。根据食物网中各营养级的相互关系,初步将这49种鱼划分为3个营养级:(1)草食性动物和杂食性动物,营养级分别为1.0~1.3级和1.4~1.9级。(2)低级肉食性动物和中级肉食性动物,营养级分别为2.0-2.8级和2.9~3.4级。其中,属于低级肉食性营养级的种类数量最多,共有30种;属于中级肉食性营养级的种类较少,共有12种。(3)高级肉食性动物,营养级为3.5~4.0级。属于该营养级的种类数量最少,只有7种。  相似文献
4.
In 1997, the Bering Sea ecosystem, a productive, high-latitude marginal sea, demonstrated that it responds on very short time scales to atmospheric anomalies. That year, a combination of atmospheric mechanisms produced notable summer weather anomalies over the eastern Bering Sea. Calm winds, clear skies, and warm air temperatures resulted in a larger-than-normal transfer of heat to surface waters and the establishment of a shallow mixed layer. In spring, significant new production occurred below the shallow pycnocline over the Middle Shelf, depleting the subpycnocline nutrient reservoir that normally exists during summer. Following the depletion of nitrate and silicate from the system, a sustained (≥ 4 months) bloom of coccolithophores ( Emiliania huxleyi ) was observed – a phenomenon not previously documented in this region. Summer Middle Shelf Domain copepod concentrations were higher for some species in 1997 than in the early 1980s. Warmer surface water and lack of wind mixing also changed the basic distribution of hydrographic regimes on the south-eastern shelf and altered the strength and position of fronts or transition zones where apex predators seek elevated food concentrations. The Inner Front was well inshore of its normal position, and adult euphausiids (the primary prey of short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris ) were unavailable at, and shoreward of, the front in autumn. High shearwater mortality rates followed the period of low euphausiid availability. Some, but not all, of these anomalous conditions re-occurred in 1998. These observations are another demonstration that the structure and function of marine ecosystems are intimately tied to forcing from the atmosphere. Alteration of climatological forcing functions, expressed as weather, can be expected to have large impacts on this ecosystem and its natural resources.  相似文献
5.
海洋食物网与高营养层次营养动力学研究策略   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13  
分析讨论了海洋食物网和高营养层次营养动力学研究进展及我国的研究状况,对在我国近海需要深入研究的问题和研究对策提出了建议。  相似文献
6.
Models of predation and fishing mortality in aquatic ecosystems   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
The dynamics of fish stocks are greatly influenced by predatory and fishery removals. We describe the strengths and weaknesses of a suite of approaches that assess the scope and magnitude of fishery and predatory mortality in aquatic ecosystems. We examine: (i) empirical models for pattern detection, process exploration, and model parameterization (e.g. multispecies time series and multiple regression); (ii) qualitative process-based models of species interactions (e.g. food web analyses and loop analyses); and quantitative process-based multispecies models that include: (iii) static flow models (e.g. Ecopath ); (iv) dynamic models of either numerical abundance (e.g. Lotka–Volterra) or biomass (e.g. Ecosim and multispecies biomass dynamics); and (v) spatially explicit versions of the above. Decisions concerning a specific modelling approach should be evaluated in the context of the goals of the model and empirical database. Important considerations include model use, desired output, and management context. Four important factors to consider in model selection are the spatial and temporal extent and resolution, conservation of mass or numbers, mathematical representation of predator–prey interactions, and mathematical representation of technical interactions. We conclude that the most effective modelling exercise to achieve a given set of goals should incorporate the evaluation of multiple model configurations.  相似文献
7.
Abstract – Energy transfer mechanisms often cannot be identified with either an isotope or a food habits analysis; however, a combined assessment provided collaborative support for depicting backwater food webs. Lateral dimensions in riverine function substantially influence backwater ecology; however, backwater communities are highly dynamic and infrequently investigated due to logistical difficulties. We created seasonal food webs for an upper Missouri River backwater using a combined food habits and stable isotope analysis. Temporal transition of energy origins was apparent. In the spring, carbon primarily originated from sediments, detritus and periphyton. During mid-summer, carbon was derived from a variety of sources, but included large proportions of terrestrial plants and particulate organic matter. By early fall, the backwater was uncoupled from the river, and autochthonous phytoplankton appeared to be the dominant carbon source. During all sample periods, Chironomidae was an important trophic link conveying energy from the primary producers to the higher consumers. Additionally, zooplankton were an important energy transfer taxa to the abundant age-0 fish community in the fall, and Corixidae were important in the spring.  相似文献
8.
南沙岛礁周围水域主要鱼类食物网   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
在南沙岛礁周围水域收集了43种主要鱼类,共940个胃含物,根据对它们的食性分析,并依其食料生物的生态类群以及消化器官特点,一般可划分为浮游生物食性、底栖动物食性、游泳动物食性、浮游生物兼底栖动物食性、底栖动物兼游泳动物食性等5种食性类型。根据食物网中各营养级的相互关系,初步划分为4个营养级,即初级生产者(海洋植物)、草食性动物和杂食性动物、低级肉食性动物和中级肉食性动物、高级肉食性动物。并根据这些营养级的划分,南沙岛礁周围水域43种主要鱼类可分低级肉食性鱼类,中级肉性鱼类和高级肉食性鱼类,它们的比为28105。灰裸顶鲷是南沙岛礁周围水域三重剌网举足轻重的捕捞对象,从食物网的观点出发,应加强灰裸顶鲷幼鱼期敌害鱼和其竞食者的捕捞,为低级肉食性经济鱼类除害,灰裸顶鲷就有可能增加资源量。  相似文献
9.
Abstract –  We analysed stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), plants, detritus and fishes to estimate the relative importance of dominant production sources supporting food webs of four Venezuelan rivers with divergent geochemical and watershed characteristics. Based on samples taken during the dry season at each site, fishes from two nutrient-poor, blackwater rivers had significantly lower δ 13C values (mean = −31.4‰ and −32.9‰) than fishes from more productive clearwater and whitewater rivers (mean = −25.2‰ and −25.6‰ respectively). Low carbon isotopic ratios of fishes from blackwaters were likely influenced by low δ 13C of DIC assimilated by aquatic primary producers. Although floodplains of three savanna rivers supported high biomass of C4 grasses, relatively little carbon from this source appeared to be assimilated by fishes. Most fishes in each system assimilated carbon derived mostly from a combination of microalgae and C3 macrophytes, two sources with broadly overlapping carbon isotopic signatures. Even with this broad overlap, several benthivorous grazers from blackwater and whitewater rivers had isotopic values that aligned more closely with algae. We conclude that comparative stable isotopic studies of river biota need to account for watershed geochemistry that influences the isotopic composition of basal production sources. Moreover, isotopic differences between river basins can provide a basis for discriminating spatial and temporal variation in the trophic ecology of fishes that migrate between watersheds having distinct geochemical characteristics.  相似文献
10.
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