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以长江中华鲟作为目标物种,通过中华鲟自然繁殖期间产卵江段的的栖息地调查,确定了中华鲟的偏好水深、偏好流速及偏好底质。以河道内流量增量法(IFIM)为基础,采用二维水力学模型结合鱼类栖息地模型对中华鲟产卵场的栖息地条件进行了分析,计算了中华鲟自然繁殖期间流量与栖息地加权可利用面积的关系。结果表明,流量在13000~15000m3/s时,栖息地加权可利用面积达到最大,约2.1km2。  相似文献
2.
以长江中华鲟作为目标物种,通过中华鲟自然繁殖期间产卵江段的的栖息地调查,确定了中华鲟的偏好水深、偏好流速及偏好底质。以河道内流量增量法(IFIM)为基础,采用二维水力学模型结合鱼类栖息地模型对中华鲟产卵场的栖息地条件进行了分析,计算了中华鲟自然繁殖期间流量与栖息地加权可利用面积的关系。结果表明,流量在13000~15000m3/s时,栖息地加权可利用面积达到最大,约2.1km2。  相似文献
3.
Feeding at early fish life stages is a key determinant of survival to recruitment. To understand the environmental and developmental determinants of early life stage feeding in ESA‐threatened green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), we performed a diet study in a highly managed section of California's Sacramento River, where temperature and discharge are controlled by dam releases. Utilising field collections from 2012 to 2016, we assessed the impacts of temperature, discharge and morphological development on the composition and number of prey items in larval green sturgeon diets. Results show that there are more empty stomachs at colder temperatures. Higher discharge conditions decreased prey taxon richness and counts, especially the abundance of cyclopoid copepods in diets. Fish smaller than 30 mm had teeth on the oral jaws and showed a strong reliance on zooplankton prey. The developmental loss of teeth in fish greater than 30 mm was associated with decreased zooplankton consumption and increased richness of benthic macroinvertebrates in diets. Our results show that river management through dam releases has the potential to impact the earliest life stage of green sturgeon by reducing the prevalence of favoured zooplankton prey in diets.  相似文献
4.
Movement and migration of fish are critical for sustaining riverine fish populations. Water resource development alters natural flow regimes and can disconnect habitats and interfere with hydrological cues for fish movement. Environmental flow releases can counter these impacts, but to be effective they must be based on quantitative flow–biota relationships. We used radio‐telemetry to investigate the association between flow and movement of Tandanus bostocki, a plotosid fish endemic to south‐western Australia. Movement was assessed for 15 adult fish at three temporal scales: weekly, daily and bihourly to reveal seasonal patterns in movement, movement around individual flow pulses, and to describe changes in home range respectively. We used a predictive modelling approach to assess the importance of discharge and other covariates on the directional distance travelled or linear home range size. Our seasonal and flow pulse study revealed that T. bostocki undertook larger downstream movements during higher flows and smaller upstream movements during lower flows. Daily movements tended to be downstream on the ascending limb of flow pulses and upstream on the descending limb. Flow‐dependent movements at weekly or daily time scales were relatively modest (typically hundreds of metres) and were moderated by time of year and gender; however, fish underwent a synchronised 1‐km movement upstream during the known reproductive period in October. The home range study revealed that T. bostocki had larger home ranges (night‐time foraging) when baseflow was elevated. These results can assist the design of customised environmental flows in the study river and other flow‐regulated rivers.  相似文献
5.
Environmental flow assessment (EFA) involving microhabitat preference models is a common approach to set ecologically friendly flow regimes in territories with ongoing or planned projects to develop river basins, such as many rivers of Eastern Africa. However, habitat requirements of many African fish species are poorly studied, which may impair EFAs. This study investigated habitat preferences of fish assemblages, based on species presence–absence data from 300 microhabitats collected in two tributaries of the Kilombero River (Tanzania), aiming to disentangle differences in habitat preferences of African species at two levels: assemblage (i.e. between tributaries) and species (i.e. species‐specific habitat preferences). Overall, flow velocity, which implies coarser substrates and shallower microhabitats, emerged as the most important driver responsible of the changes in stream‐dwelling assemblages at the microhabitat scale. At the assemblage level, we identified two important groups of species according to habitat preferences: (a) cover‐orientated and limnophilic species, including Barbus spp., Mormyridae and Chiloglanis deckenii, and (b) rheophilic species, including Labeo cylindricus, Amphilius uranoscopus and Parakneria spekii. Rheophilic species preferred boulders, fast flow velocity and deeper microhabitats. At the species level, we identified species‐specific habitat preferences. For instance, Barbus spp. preferred low flow velocity shallow depth and fine‐to‐medium substratum, whereas L. cylindricus and P. spekii mainly selected shallow microhabitats with coarse substrata. Knowledge of habitat preferences of these assemblages and species should enhance the implementation of ongoing and future EFA studies of the region.  相似文献
6.
  1. Environmental water management seeks to balance competing demands between the water needed to sustain human populations and their economic activities and that required to sustain functioning freshwater ecosystems and the species they support. It must be predicated on an understanding of the environmental, hydrological, and biological factors that determine the distribution and abundance of aquatic species.
  2. The Daly River of the wet–dry tropics of northern Australia consists of a perennially flowing main stem and large tributaries, as well as many small to large naturally intermittent tributaries, and associated off‐channel wetlands. Increased groundwater abstraction to support irrigated agriculture during the dry season threatens to reduce dry‐season flows that maintain perenniality and persistence of freshwater fishes.
  3. Fish assemblages were surveyed at 55 locations during the dry season over a 2‐year period with the goal of establishing the key landscape‐scale and local‐scale (i.e. habitat) drivers of fish species distribution.
  4. Longitudinal (upstream/downstream) and lateral (river/floodplain) gradients in assemblage structure were observed with the latter dependent on the position in the river landscape. Underlying these gradients, stream flow intermittency influenced assemblage composition, species richness, and body size distributions. Natural constraints to dispersal were identified and their influence on assemblage structure was also dependent on position within the catchment.
  5. Eight distinct assemblage types were identified, defined by differences in the abundance of species within five groups differing in functional traits describing body size, spawning requirements, and dispersal capacity. These functional groups largely comprised species widely distributed in northern Australia.
  6. The results of the study are discussed with reference to the environmental flow needs of the Daly River and other rivers of northern Australia. The findings may also be applied to environmental flow management in savannah rivers elsewhere.
  相似文献
7.
本文以澜沧江支流景谷河引水式电站形成的过渡区减脱水河段为研究区域,根据底栖动物的丰度、生物多样性对适宜栖息地水深、流速的需求,采用栖息地模拟法建立景谷河减脱水过渡区生态流量核算方法。结果表明,研究河段69.0%的底栖动物种类在边滩中出现,47.30%在浅濑中出现,因此,边滩和浅濑是维持底栖动多样性的最优生境类型。模拟了13种工况下底栖动物最适栖息地面积的变化情况,最终确定景谷河减水河段底栖动物最适的生态流量需求为3.0-4.0m3/s。本文为以水生生物实际需求为目标的生态流量核算奠定了基础。  相似文献
8.
Freshwater rivers have been substantially altered by development and flow regulation. Altered hydrological regimes have affected a range of biota, but impacts are often most obvious on freshwater fish. Flow largely influences the range of physical habitat available to fish at various life history stages. Biological rhythms are therefore often linked to flow and optimized so that opportunities for spawning, growth and dispersal are synchronized. Assuming that flow therefore becomes the main factor which structures freshwater fish communities, the use of species specific biological information should be able to inform adaptive flow delivery strategies from the river reach to catchment scale. A test of this assertion was performed as a case study of native fish within the Edward‐Wakool River system (New South Wales, Australia). Fish within the system were assigned to one of four groups based on biological similarity. Aspects of reproductive and movement ecology were then reviewed to generate optimal flow release strategies for each group. Life expectancy and hydrological constraints were then investigated and used to develop a possible 10‐year flow delivery program that could generate ecological outcomes within a strategic adaptive management framework that considered potential impacts on third parties. The approach could be used to develop flow characteristics to benefit biota in any watercourse provided enough data are available to link potential outcomes with flow delivery.  相似文献
9.
Abstract Barriers to migration are a major threat to freshwater fish populations. A novel measurement of swimming speed performance and an analytical model were used to calculate the probability that endangered Macquarie perch, Macquaria australasica Cuvier, can swim through instream structures. Over the range of river discharges (2.7–166 ML day−1) and temperatures (10–22 °C) examined, M. australasica could successfully pass through a rock‐ramp fishway and nearby natural riffles under most river discharges, whilst pipe culverts were passable only to large individuals (>17.7 cm total length) under a high river discharge. Cold water temperatures (below 16 °C) significantly reduced the likelihood of passage in each case. It was concluded that both the volume and thermal characteristics of environmental flow releases should be considered when assessing and remediating potential instream barriers to fish passage in regulated river systems.  相似文献
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