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从上个世纪开始,人们对于海洋悬浮物就予以了高度重视。悬浮物作为海洋中最普遍的污染,对海洋生物造成了很大危害。本文用海洋疏浚淤泥悬浮物对卤虫无节幼体和梭鱼幼鱼进行了急性毒性试验。结果显示,半致死浓度随着时间的延长而逐渐降低;不同密度的海洋生物半致死浓度相差不大。不同水温条件下的梭鱼幼鱼试验表明,水温为24℃时其半致死浓度比21℃时要低,其安全浓度也呈现相同的趋势。  相似文献
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应用浮游植物群落结构变化及富营养化指数评价南太湖底泥疏浚工程对减轻太湖营养盐内负荷、控制湖泊富营养化的效果。研究结果表明,疏浚后水体中的浮游植物种类有所增加,其密度、生物量及蓝藻所占比例均有不同程度的降低,浮游植物群落结构发生变化;疏浚后水体的生物多样性指数发生变化,Shannon-Weaver指数升高,卡尔森营养状态指数(TSIM)降低,表明南太湖富营养化现状有所改善,从而揭示底泥疏浚工程对于减轻南太湖营养盐内负荷、控制湖泊富营养化具有积极作用。  相似文献
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为研究滆湖北部湖区生态系统对底泥生态疏浚的动态响应,2012年10月~2013年9月在滆湖北部湖区采集沉积物和生物样品,分析底泥疏浚对底泥营养盐含量、浮游植物、底栖动物和大型水生植物群落结构的影响。结果表明,滆湖北部疏浚区的总氮、总磷和有机质营养盐含量低于未疏浚区,说明底泥疏浚是削减沉积物内源负荷的有效手段。与未疏浚区相比,疏浚区浮游植物的密度、生物量有所减少,且群落中蓝藻所占的比例下降,浮游植物多样性指数上升,一定程度上减少了滆湖北部发生蓝藻水华的风险。疏浚区底栖动物中的寡毛类的数量和生物量与未疏浚区基本相等,而摇蚊类和软体动物的密度和生物量则下降了80%以上。底泥疏浚区大型水生植物的种类、覆盖度和生物量与未疏浚区相当。  相似文献
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  1. Recent ROV surveys conducted on the Ragusa bank in the Sicily Channel (Mediterranean Sea) documented illegal and continuous use of the ‘ingegno’ gear for red coral fishing.
  2. Three lost gears were recorded showing different levels of epibiosis thus supporting multi‐annual exploitation of the bank.
  3. The red coral population of the Ragusa bank showed a typical ‘forest‐like’ configuration with upright, medium‐sized colonies similar to those of other commercially exploited deep Mediterranean banks.
  4. The direct negative effect of this trawling gear was evident from numerous rocky boulders completely enveloped by lost nets and occasionally turned over. Red coral fragments as well as fragments of ‘ingegno’ nets were observed in high abundance on the sea floor. This evidence suggests that this gear is highly destructive even on rough sea floors, contrary to the traditional view, which is that it has a more random impact on rough rocky bottoms.
  5. The estimated coral uptake of ‘ingegno’ is 45% of the total coral biomass, while the estimated coral loss, in terms of fragments, is 9%, demonstrating the high impact of this gear.
  6. The study highlighted the infringement of the red coral fishing ban by trawling gears as well as a lack of effective policing. The strengthening of controls on landings at nearby harbours, and education programmes for the local maritime communities are among the management actions proposed to protect these surviving red coral populations from the ongoing illegal fishing activity.
  相似文献
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Bottom‐contact fishing gears are globally the most widespread anthropogenic sources of direct disturbance to the seabed and associated biota. Managing these fishing disturbances requires quantification of gear impacts on biota and the rate of recovery following disturbance. We undertook a systematic review and meta‐analysis of 122 experiments on the effects‐of‐bottom fishing to quantify the removal of benthos in the path of the fishing gear and to estimate rates of recovery following disturbance. A gear pass reduced benthic invertebrate abundance by 26% and species richness by 19%. The effect was strongly gear‐specific, with gears that penetrate deeper into the sediment having a significantly larger impact than those that penetrate less. Sediment composition (% mud and presence of biogenic habitat) and the history of fishing disturbance prior to an experimental fishing event were also important predictors of depletion, with communities in areas that were not previously fished, predominantly muddy or biogenic habitats being more strongly affected by fishing. Sessile and low mobility biota with longer life‐spans such as sponges, soft corals and bivalves took much longer to recover after fishing (>3 year) than mobile biota with shorter life‐spans such as polychaetes and malacostracans (<1 year). This meta‐analysis provides insights into the dynamics of recovery. Our estimates of depletion along with estimates of recovery rates and large‐scale, high‐resolution maps of fishing frequency and habitat will support more rigorous assessment of the environmental impacts of bottom‐contact gears, thus supporting better informed choices in trade‐offs between environmental impacts and fish production.  相似文献
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香港方面在外伶仃岛正北约 4.5公里处设立垃圾区,长期倾倒淤泥、垃圾。为查明倾倒活动与附近渔业环境的关系,在垃圾区附近海域进行了9个测站的表面沉积采样调查,每个样品测定沉积化学成分和粒级分类等13个项目。根据调查所得的第一手资料,应用模糊聚类分析方法,鉴别出香港垃圾的倾倒活动,使外伶仃岛北部区域复盖了新生沉积层,并证实位于外伶仃岛北海岸的石冲湾网箱养殖区处于较主要的受影响区域内。  相似文献
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Abstract The influence of environmental factors on the density and biomass of stocked brown trout, Salmo trutta L., parr was studied in brooks subjected to intensive forestry in the Isojoki river basin, western Finland. Multivariate regression analysis showed that 69% of the variation in the population density of parr was determined by five variables: (1) mean water depth; (2) the abundance of pools; (3) stony bottom substrates with stones sized between 2 and 10cm in diameter; (4) undercut banks; and (5) the percentage of shading by trees. Correspondingly, 57% of the variation in the biomass of parr was determined by three variables: (1) mean water depth; (2) the abundance of pools; and (3) benthic vegetation. Dredging of the brooks and forest ditching had the most harmful consequences for the nursery habitats of brown trout parr. Measures for the rehabilitation of brown trout production in these brooks are discussed.  相似文献
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The occurrence and density of ≥ 1+ brown trout, Salmo trutta L., and their relationship with prevailing instream and catchment characteristics were studied in 50 small forest streams, partially dredged for forest ditching. The occurrence of trout at a stream site was largely determined by the abundance of pools, size of upper catchment and water pH. Moreover, at sites where trout occurred, the abundance of pools was lower at dredged locations than at those in a natural state. In riffles in a natural state, there was a positive relationship between trout density and three instream variables: the abundance of stream pools, cascades and instream vegetation, while an inverse relationship was found with the abundance of substratum of 2–10 cm in diameter. Of the catchment variables, correspondingly, the proportion of forest in the upper catchment was positively related and the proportion of peatland negatively related to trout density. No significant regression model could be fitted for dredged riffles. The possibility of enhancing trout populations in dredged riffles is discussed.  相似文献
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