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In 1997, the Bering Sea ecosystem, a productive, high-latitude marginal sea, demonstrated that it responds on very short time scales to atmospheric anomalies. That year, a combination of atmospheric mechanisms produced notable summer weather anomalies over the eastern Bering Sea. Calm winds, clear skies, and warm air temperatures resulted in a larger-than-normal transfer of heat to surface waters and the establishment of a shallow mixed layer. In spring, significant new production occurred below the shallow pycnocline over the Middle Shelf, depleting the subpycnocline nutrient reservoir that normally exists during summer. Following the depletion of nitrate and silicate from the system, a sustained (≥ 4 months) bloom of coccolithophores ( Emiliania huxleyi ) was observed – a phenomenon not previously documented in this region. Summer Middle Shelf Domain copepod concentrations were higher for some species in 1997 than in the early 1980s. Warmer surface water and lack of wind mixing also changed the basic distribution of hydrographic regimes on the south-eastern shelf and altered the strength and position of fronts or transition zones where apex predators seek elevated food concentrations. The Inner Front was well inshore of its normal position, and adult euphausiids (the primary prey of short-tailed shearwaters, Puffinus tenuirostris ) were unavailable at, and shoreward of, the front in autumn. High shearwater mortality rates followed the period of low euphausiid availability. Some, but not all, of these anomalous conditions re-occurred in 1998. These observations are another demonstration that the structure and function of marine ecosystems are intimately tied to forcing from the atmosphere. Alteration of climatological forcing functions, expressed as weather, can be expected to have large impacts on this ecosystem and its natural resources.  相似文献
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Characterizing regime shifts in the marine environment   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
Recent years have seen a plethora of studies reporting that ‘regime shifts’ have occurred in the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans during the last century. In many cases, the criteria used to distinguish a regime shift have not been explicitly stated. In other cases, a formal definition has been proposed and the data set assessed against it. Developing a universal quantitative definition for identifying and distinguishing between purported climatic and ecological regime shifts has proved problematic as many authors have developed criteria that seem unique to the system under study. Consequently, they throw little light on the drivers of ecological regime shifts. Criteria used to define regime shifts are reviewed and on the basis of evidence from purported regime shifts, common characteristics in the speed and amplitude of the changes and the duration of quasi‐stable states are used to propose a more clearly defined set of criteria for defining climatic and ecological regime shifts. Causal drivers of regime shifts are explored using correlation analysis. Limitations of these methods are discussed.  相似文献
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Climate change and the future for coral reef fishes   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
Climate change will impact coral-reef fishes through effects on individual performance, trophic linkages, recruitment dynamics, population connectivity and other ecosystem processes. The most immediate impacts will be a loss of diversity and changes to fish community composition as a result of coral bleaching. Coral-dependent fishes suffer the most rapid population declines as coral is lost; however, many other species will exhibit long-term declines due to loss of settlement habitat and erosion of habitat structural complexity. Increased ocean temperature will affect the physiological performance and behaviour of coral reef fishes, especially during their early life history. Small temperature increases might favour larval development, but this could be counteracted by negative effects on adult reproduction. Already variable recruitment will become even more unpredictable. This will make optimal harvest strategies for coral reef fisheries more difficult to determine and populations more susceptible to overfishing. A substantial number of species could exhibit range shifts, with implications for extinction risk of small-range species near the margins of reef development. There are critical gaps in our knowledge of how climate change will affect tropical marine fishes. Predictions are often based on temperate examples, which may be inappropriate for tropical species. Improved projections of how ocean currents and primary productivity will change are needed to better predict how reef fish population dynamics and connectivity patterns will change. Finally, the potential for adaptation to climate change needs more attention. Many coral reef fishes have geographical ranges spanning a wide temperature gradient and some have short generation times. These characteristics are conducive to acclimation or local adaptation to climate change and provide hope that the more resilient species will persist if immediate action is taken to stabilize Earth's climate.  相似文献
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Anthropogenic global warming has significantly influenced physical and biological processes at global and regional scales. The observed and anticipated changes in global climate present significant opportunities and challenges for societies and economies. We compare the vulnerability of 132 national economies to potential climate change impacts on their capture fisheries using an indicator-based approach. Countries in Central and Western Africa (e.g. Malawi, Guinea, Senegal, and Uganda), Peru and Colombia in north-western South America, and four tropical Asian countries (Bangladesh, Cambodia, Pakistan, and Yemen) were identified as most vulnerable. This vulnerability was due to the combined effect of predicted warming, the relative importance of fisheries to national economies and diets, and limited societal capacity to adapt to potential impacts and opportunities. Many vulnerable countries were also among the world's least developed countries whose inhabitants are among the world's poorest and twice as reliant on fish, which provides 27% of dietary protein compared to 13% in less vulnerable countries. These countries also produce 20% of the world's fish exports and are in greatest need of adaptation planning to maintain or enhance the contribution that fisheries can make to poverty reduction. Although the precise impacts and direction of climate-driven change for particular fish stocks and fisheries are uncertain, our analysis suggests they are likely to lead to either increased economic hardship or missed opportunities for development in countries that depend upon fisheries but lack the capacity to adapt.  相似文献
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Climatic changes over the North Pacific which began in the mid 1970s, peaked in the early 1980s, and ended by the late 1980s, appear to have altered productivity at various trophic levels in the marine ecosystem in the central North Pacific. The climatic change resulted in increased mixed layer depth and the frequency of deep mixing events, particularly during January-March. A number of biological time series for species ranging from primary to apex levels in the North-western Hawaiian Islands, show corresponding declines in productivity of 30–50% from the early 1980s to the present. We hypothesize that during the early 1980s, increased mixing due to the climate event resulted in greater nutrient input into the euphotic zone and ultimately increased ecosystem productivity. Productivity over a range of trophic levels declined when the climate event ended.  相似文献
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捕捞压力和气候变化对东海马面纯渔获量的影响   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
为了研究捕捞压力和气候变化对东海马面纯(Navodon spp.)渔获量的影响,对1976年~2006年的东海马面纯渔获量进行了分析。东海马面纯渔获量可划分成因捕捞效应所产生的趋势变化和因气候变动所导致的渔获量变动,前者可用Fox模型来拟合。Fox模型拟合结果显示,东海马面纯渔获量与捕捞努力量显著相关(P〈0.01)。移除捕捞压力增长引起的变化趋势后,其渔获量变动与热带气旋影响指数、东海海表温度、东海冬季季风和黄海夏季季风呈显著正偏相关(P〈0.03),与热带气旋影响指数、黄海冬季季风及长江流域和东海沿岸降雨呈显著负偏相关(P〈0.03)。根据捕捞努力量和气候变量对东海马面纯渔获量进行拟合,结果显示,拟合的渔获量与实际渔获量显著相关(R=0.91,P〈0.01),说明捕捞压力和气候变化显著影响东海马面纯渔获量的变动。此外,由于未来气候的变化,东海马面鲍渔获量可能出现更大波动。  相似文献
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